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从“市井四奇”到“岁寒三友”
来源:中华读书报 | 林跖蓝  2020年10月25日10:41
关键词:

《wangcengqizuopinjingxuanji》,wangcengqizhu,jiangsurenminchubanshe2020nian9yuediyiban,32.00yuan

yabo88登录 wangcengqidexiaoshuochuangzuoshiyu1940niandai,yizhidao1980、1990niandai,tadexiaoshuowulunyuyanhaishibidiaodouyousuobianhua,danchixuleduishijing、richangjixiaorenwudeguanzhu。wangcengqidexiaorenwushuxiedadiyoulianglei:yileizaishijiao、ticaiyijixiefashangdoudaiyoujiushiwenrenqi,xiefanfuzouzu,danquweishi“shidafushi”de。xiang1940niandaixiechude《jiyamingjia》《yishujia》《luopo》《yibing》《guatan——quexiazajizhiyi》dengshuyucilei,1980niandaixiechude《xi》《suihansanyou》dengyeshuyucilei。zheileixiaoshuoduoshaoanhanmouzhongjiazhiyushenmeide“yiwei”;lingyileizeyaopingshixuduo,shijiaomingxianxiayi,duoyongbaimiao,wuxianmingdejiazhilichang,fangfozhiweikeguanchengxian。xiang《haoyoucaiqushi》《bijixiaoshuoliangpian》《xiaofang》《maiyanjingdebaoyingren》dengjishiruci,liuluchunonghoude“pingminquwei”,eryichengjiulun,sihuqianyileiyaogenggao,yegengweiputongduzhesuoshuxi,zheilixiangtantaodeyezhuyaoshiqianyilei。

wangcengqixianranshirenwei,meiyudaocunyuyiqiezhizhong,erbudushuwenren、shidafusuozhuanyou。yushitaxiele《jiyamingjia》,xiele《yishujia》《jianshangjia》,suowei“jikejinhudao,yiketonghushen”,napashiweimodejiyiyekejindaotongshen;zaidaodedecengmian,wangwangshineixieputongren、xiaorenwunenggoubaoyouposudechunshanzhixin,zheichunshanzhixinjinhushibenneng,daoweibishicongshengxianjingdiandeyueduzhongxiuyangerlai。《guxiangren》zhongdewangdanren、《xi》zhongdegaobeiming、《suihansanyou》zhongdejinyifudoushuyucileirenwu。

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yabo88登录 duwanwangcengqidezheiyileixiaoshuo,buyoudexiangqile《rulinwaishi》。“qiernengxie,wanerduofeng”de《rulinwaishi》fengcileyiban“bagushi”“jiamingshi”,danxiaoshuoyesuzaoleyixiexiangduizhengmianderenwu,rukangkairexindemaer,mingshiqidedushaoqing,yijixianrenlingxiuyuyudedeng。buguozheixiedoushuyudianxingde“rulin”renwu。chucizhiwai,wujingzihaixieleyixie“rulin”zhiwaidexiaorenwu。ruzhunzhunjiaozidekuangtaigong、benfenerzhangyidexizibaowenqing、qianlixunfudeguoxiaozi、youmouerganweidezhuangshifengmingqideng,douxianranshizuozhepianaide。chucizhiwai,zai《rulinwaishi》jieweichuzuozhehaisuzaoleshijingsiqiren:siyuanlianshendejixianianxiedeyibihaozi;maihuozhitongzidewangtaijingyuqidao;kaichaguandegaikuanshanzhanghuahua;caifengjingyuanjinghuidanqin、xiezijizuoshi。yourenquanjingyuanqujiaruyarenxinglie,dantawuyiruci,tadedaolishi:“chibaolefanyaodanqin,yaoxiezi,zhushidouyouwo。youbutanturendefugui,youbusihourendelianse。”zheisigeshijingrenwudeque“qi”,dantamenbuxiangshichuzizhenshideshijing,jiuxiangyouyanjiuzhesuoyan,《rulinwaishi》di55huideshijingshizeshi“beigaixiele”,zheishiyigehuanxiangdelingyu,ershijingsiqirenzeshi“weizhuangchengshirendewenrenyinshi”。deque,zheishijingsiqi,wulunzhiyeduomebeiwei,doujubeichuantongwenrendexiuyang——shufa、huihua、qidao、shicidengdeng。tamenbingfeibeizhuliuwenrenquanzisuojienade“shi”,erkeyishuoshigaitouhuanmianledeyinyigaoren。

《suihansanyou》lidesangexiaorenwuyeshiruci,tamendezhiyegeyi,danzuozhejiangsangejiyazhidemingzifuyurenwu,qizhiquyejiuzhaoranle。bizhecaice,wangcengqihuoshishoudaole《rulinwaishi》deyingxiangerxiexiale《suihansanyou》zheiyileixiaoshuo。dangran,wangcengqibixiadexiaorenwu,yuwujingzibixiadechangyoushirenhaishiyouyixiequbie。rusunyuzaitandaowangcengqiyuzhouzuorendequbieshizhichude:“wangcengqitanderujia,bushirujiaohelixuedechuantong,ershiyuanshirujiadezhongzhengzhifengyijilidaiwenrenshenshangdepinghezhiqi。yinweibuguanhuzhexueyulijiao,zhizaiqingganbiaoshufangmian,guzuopindejingshenyusixiangshiguanlianbuda……”zheiyekeyikanchengshiwangcengqideyu《rulinwaishi》zhongdexiaorenwushuxiedequbiesuozai。yinwei《rulinwaishi》deyabo88dengluzhuceyezhengyingzhiyusixiangshidebeijingzhongqukaocha,xiaoshuofengciyufanside,shibaguqushideweihai,shensuobeikaide,shirujia“li”demeiluoyuxiaowang。erwujingzisuozanmeikendingde,yibaowenqing、fenglaodiedengrenwujixiaoshuozuihoude“shijingsiqi”weidaibiao,zeruxiazhiqingsuorenweide,shi“lishierqiuzhuye”,shibieyoujituode。

erwangcengqixiexiaorenwu,shichangchangdaizhefeitongyibandexingweiquguanchayuchumoxiaorenwugetidexinggeyumingyun,xinshangtamenzaiyanhuosushizhongsuojuyoudepingfandemei,shizizude,erbushifuhaohualede。tazaixiaoshuo《milu》zhongyouyan:“woshigexiexiaoshuoderen,duiyuren,wozhinengxianglejie、xinshang,bingduitajinxingmiaohui,wobuxiangduirenherenzuochulunduan。xiangwodeyiweilaoshiyiyang,duiyuzheigeshijie,wosuoqingxindeshixianxiang。wobushanyuzuochouxiangdesiwei。woduiren,gengduodizhuyideshitadeshenmeiyiyi。”“wodelaoshi”zhideshishencongwen,“qingxinyuxianxiang”shishencongwenshuoguode,neiwufeishishuoxianxiangbenshenjishiyiyisuozai,erbushichuandiguanniandezhongjiehuozaiti。suoyiwangcengqixiexiangjianxiaorenwumeishandexinling,xiewumingqiaojiangdejingzhanjiyi,xiebianyuanwenrendefenggucaoshou,doushouxianshiduirenbenshenganxingqu,erbushijiangrenzhiyuhuopipanhuofansidejingmianshang。lingwai,wangcengqidebichuwangwangyaogengwenqing,qizhongyoutazuoweiyige“shuqingderendaozhuyizhe”duiyurenxingdejibenxinnian。

huoxukeyishuo,wangcengqibushikeyibeinarusixiangshiqukaoliangdeneileiyabo88denglu,dantarengshidianxingdeshenzhiyuchuantongzhongdeyabo88denglu。1980niandaiyilai,wangcengqideshengmingqueqi,shihenyouyiweideyabo88dengluxianxiang。yourencengzheiyangyilun:“woguanwangshi,taqishijiushitaxiaoshuolidewangshouwu、taohuchenhejinyifu……womenzheidaishahuhudeduzhe,doubazheixiekanzuo‘fenggu’‘qizhi’‘qinggao’‘renwenxing’dengdeng,neishiyinweiwomenshengmingzhongconglaidoumeiyouguozheixiedongxi……”zheiduanhuahennengshuomingwangcengqishiyuanhewuyizhizhongbeinarudangdaizhishifenzisixiangshiqukaochade。gen《rulinwaishi》zaisixiangshishangdeyiyixiangbi,zheibeihoudeluojijixiangsiyoubuwanquanxiangtong:zai《rulinwaishi》zhong,wujingzijiangtazhuixunjingshenjiayuandezuihouyidianxiwangjituoyushijing,yidikangneigeshidaidelibenglehuai;erwangcengqihuowuyiyuchaotuohuofanduishenme,danzaishishishang,tadeneixieziruchuruyuxinjiuyasuzhijiande、jingshuishenliudewenzi,tixingzherenmenyabo88dengluyuwenhuadebenzhi,yebeijieyifansiwomenshenchushidaidezhongzhongzaojingyuquehan。