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滕固之死:“君有敬通、孝标之恨”
来源:文汇报 | 石建邦  2020年10月23日08:44
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yabo88登录 deguobolinyourenjuhui。zuoqi:fengzhi、zhuziqing、chenzhonghuan、xufancheng、zhuxie、tenggu、jiangfucong。sheyuaixikabufengzhizhuchuhuayuan,1932nian6yue14ri

dangqianzhongshudezhitenggudeehao,feichangjingchashangtong,yilianxielesishouwuyangushi《airuoqu》aidao。diyishoujiweitengguzhisidabaoyuanqu,duitadesibiaoshibaisibudeqijie,tatebiezaicishixiamianjialeyitiaofuzhu:“junyoujingtong、xiaobiaozhihen,suicutiannian。”

tenggu(1901—1941),ziruoqu,shanghaibaoshanyuepuren。zaiminguowenhuashishang,tawuyishiyiweiduomianshou,jishixiaoshuojia,youshizhongguomeishushidekaituozhe;tayoujijicongzheng,shiguominzhengfuxingzhengyuancanshi,haidangguoguoliyizhuanxiaozhang。zongqiyisheng,tazaiyabo88dengluchuangzuo、wenyipiping、meishushi、yishukaogu、wenwugujibaohunaizhixueshuyijiedengfangmianjunyouzhuoyuedegongxian。

ranertianduyingcai,tengguzhongnianqishi,zhihuolesishisui,lingrentongxi。zhangqiyilai,dajiaduitadeshishiyuanyinbushenlele。bizhezibuchuaijianlou,yijumuqiansuojianziliao,shiduitengguzhisijiqishenhousuoshizuoyiculveshuli,qiujiaoyuzhuweifangjia。

1940nian10yue25ri,tengguhexufanchengdaozhongqinghualongqiaowangfanghaoyouzhuxie,“shinianbujian,dengqianyehua,mijueduoqing”。tamensanweihaiyoufengzhi、jiangfucong、yaocongwu,zai1930nianqianhoudoushiyiqiliuxuedeguobolindelaoyou。

laopengyouzhanluanzhongzhongfengwuhuabutan。zhuxiehaosheying,nachunangnianzaibolinweitengguwaiguonvyousuoshedezhaopian,“taolizhengfang,qianyingyaotiao”。tenggukanlexintoubieyouyifanziwei,“xinranyixi,chuangranyibei”。ganchuzhiyu,tadangchangtixieliangshoujueju,neiyou“taohuarenmianchunyanse,huanzuomitianjiehuohong”“huaturenwujuwuyang,huishouqingyouyishinian”dengju(zhuxie《tianfenghaitaolouzhaji》dijiujuan《renhaicangsang》,ye165,zhonghuashuju,2009nian)。dangwan,dajiayiyouweijin,tengguhexufanchengliangrensuoxingliusuzaizhuxiejiali。

yabo88登录 dangshi,tengguganggangcongkunminghuidaozhongqing,ciqudangleliangnianduodeguoliyizhuanxiaozhangdezhiwu,rengranhuixingzhengyuandangcanshi,bingdaozhongyangdaxuedengxuexiaojianke,jiangshougudaiyishukecheng。neiduanshijian,tahehaoyouchangrenxia、jiangfucong、jinyufudengrenlaiwangpinfan,haiyubeigaizuzhongguoyishushixuehui,tadeqitashehuizhiwuyefubushao。

shuliaogangguoleyigeyue,tenggujikaishifabing。11yue26ri,zhuxiecongchengdouchuchahuilai。wuhouqukanta,quefaxiantenggu“wodoushizhong,zhanzhuanchuangzi,hanchurushen”。zhuxiehetalvetanjijujiucongconggaoci。

zhuxiegangzoubujiu,xingzhengyuantongshichenkewenjiujiedaojiangfucongdedianhua,shuotenggudelejibing。tayutongshiduanmukaijimanggandaotenggujiazhong,“benzouledabantian,caibatasongdaowuhanliaoyangyuanqu”(《chenkewenriji》,ye644,shehuikexuewenxianchubanshe,2014nian)。kaishiyishenghaiyiweishijixingweibing,jieguoriyibujianhaozhuan,yushizhuandaozhongyangyiyuanzhenzhi。12yue11rixiawu,chenkewendengrenqianwangyiyuantanshi,yishengyoushuoshifeineijishui,“qingshishujuebuqing”。

zhenggedongchunzhijiao,tengguchanmianbingta。juhaoyouzhangkebiaohuiyi,hanjiaqijian,tadeerzitengliuyinhaicengquyiyuanpeihuleshiduotian。cishiyiyuanzhenduanxialai,shuotahuanleimoyanhejisuiyan,jingchangxuyaochoushui。“zhizhikaichunshangbujianhaozhuan。”(zhangkebiao《shijihuishou》,haitianchubanshe,1999nian)

1941niande3、4yuejian,tenggudebingqingshihaoshihuai,jingchangchuruyiyuan。4yue11ri,tajizhongyangdaxuejiaowuchuxielezhangqingjiatiao,shuotahuannvejizhengzaiyizhi,xuyaoqingjiaertian。15ri,jinyufuquzhongyangyiyuantanshifusinian,shunbianyouwenqitenggudebingqing,shuoyijingchuyuanle。

dandao5yue15ri,tengguxielefengxinjichangrenxia,tuotazhuchizhaojizhongguoyishushixuehuilishihuiyi,shanglianggaizushiyi,cixinshimuqiansuojiantengguzuihoushouji。gujidangshiqianhou,tengguzaicizhuyuan。5yue19ri,tengguhaoyoutiyujiaoyujiahaogengshengquyiyuantanshi。zheiciyiyuanrenweitadedeshinaomoyan,payinqichuanran,jianghaojuzhimenwai。tengguzailimianmenfengzhongjiandaohao,huishouyaohu:“naomoyan!naomoyan!”diertianzaoshangqishisanshifen,tenggushishiyuzhongqingzhongyangyiyuan,nianjinsishisui。

yabo88登录 tenggudeyingnianzaoshilingzhongduozhijiaohaoyouewantanxi,dandajiaduitadesiyinquewangwangyuyanbuxiang,sihubuyuanduoti。haoyouzhuxie《diaoruoqu》yiwenzhongyuelveshuoqi:“guonanyihou,zhuanxiliunan,ruoquyangbianyelang,yuzesuixiaorushuqianjukunming,yinxunrengtong。yufangxiqihuozhansuoxue,zuoyuduoshi,naiyiruoqushanzhangshejiaozhigu,feiyuhengsheng,jiatingzhijian,poduojuyu,ruoqunaicizhiguiyu。……”suihanhuqici,dansiruoyousuozhi。

qianzhongshuhetengguzaikunmingxiangshi,suiranzhiyouduanduanbageyueshijian,danliangrenyijianrugu,keweixingxingxiangxi。qianzhongshudezaonianmingwen《zhongguoshiyuzhongguohua》,jiushishoutenggudetishiheyaoyueerzhuanxiede。dangqianzhongshudezhitenggudeehao,feichangjingchashangtong,yilianxielesishouwuyangushi《airuoqu》aidao。diyishoujiweitengguzhisidabaoyuanqu,duitadesibiaoshibaisibudeqijie,you“zishoujuzhici,zhiciningtianqian?”“tulinghousizhe,koutiansongqiyuan”(shouru《huaijushicun》)denglingrenzhuixindejuzi。qianshitebiezaicishixiamianjialeyitiaofuzhu:“junyoujingtong、xiaobiaozhihen,suicutiannian。”

meishushijiaruanpu(1918—2000)shidangnianguoliyizhuandexuesheng,tazaiwanniankandaoqianzhongshudezheishouwanshi,yinfawuxiangongming,weicizhuanmenxieleyipian《tenggulaoshideshengpinghenshi》huiyijieshi。ruanwenshuo,qianshizhongdezheitiaozizhu,kanqilaiyinhui,quejiangtenggusiyinyiyudaopo。shenmeshi“youjingtong、xiaobiaozhihen”ni?jingtongshidonghanshidecaishifengyan,zijingtong,quqihanji,beishouzhemo,rennaidaolao,shideliyi。daoleliuchaoliangshi,youyougewenrenliujun,zixiaobiao,zaihunpeishangyeyufengyanyouxiangtongdezaoyu,zaisuozhuan《zixu》yiwenzhong,tajiangzijiyufengyanjinxinglebijiao,shuo:“jingtongyoujiqi,zhiyushencaojingjiu。yuyouhanshi,yilingjiadaokanke。”ruanpuzuoweixuesheng,duixiaozhangdesitongxinjishou:“zheiliangweigurenyoudebaohendaolao,ertengxianshengdexianhenqishi,quezaishengnian。”(ruanpu《tenggulaoshideshengpinghenshi》,shouru《fenghuoyicheng——guoliyishuzhuankexuexiaoxiaoyouhuiyilu》,ye36,zhongguomeishuxueyuanchubanshe,1998nian)

yabo88登录 juruanpuhuiyi,ta1939nian8yuecongguoliyizhuanbiye,zai1940nianzhi1941nianqijian,changzhuliuzhongqing,guduixiaozhangtenggudeqingkuangyousuolejie。yuanlaitazaidushushi,renshiguoliyizhuanzongwuchuyiweizhiyuanchengxiansheng。neishizheiweichengxianshengnianyuewushikaiwai,binfabanbai,henshiheaireqing。chengxianshengkenengyutengguyouxiejiuguanxi,dangtengguxierenhuidaozhongqingshi,zheiweichengxianshengyesuitongqianlai。zaitenggushengbingzhuyuanqijian,chengxianshengjingchangchoukongwangfanyutengzhaiheyiyuan,tengguqushishi,yeshiyoutabangtongliaolihoushi。sangshibanwanhoubujiu,ruanpupengjianchengxiansheng,tashuoqitengxianshenglinsishideqicanqingxing。qizhongzuishiruanputinglegandaonanguode,shitenggudeyiwudoubeitadefurenkouliu,liansihouruliandefushiyebuji。zheizhongnankan,queshishilingrennanyixiangxiangde。

wenzhonghaishuo,ruanpuzaizhongqingcenghetongxueyiqibaifangguotengxiaozhang,danjianta“shenqingxiandeyouxiejusang,mianrongyebiandecanglaolexuduo”。zaitakanlai,“shiyeshangdexinlijiaocui,jitishangdebingmokunrao,jiatingshenghuoshangdebaoshoulingnve,zaochengletengxianshengzhongnianqishi”。

yabo88登录 qishizaidangshi,tenggujunei,tengfurentaiguoxionghan,zaiyoupengzhongjihushigongkaidemimi。

yabo88登录 huashuotengguyequehuyoudianduoqinglangman。danjiushizheiyangyigeren,pianpianpengdaokexing,palaopopadeyaoming,yizhiyubuganliurenheyixingdeshuxin“zuizheng”zaishenbian,bushixiaohuijiushituozhiyoubaocun。

tengguzaidangguoliyizhuanxiaozhangqijiannaoleyichanghonghonglieliedehunwailianai。duixiangbushibieren,naishidangshifeichanghuoyuedenvshirenxufang(1912—2008)。xufangweirenhuopojiantan,tongyangshanzhangshejiao,meiliwuxian。jushuodangshihenduomingrenduizheiweinvshirenqingmubeizhi,danaojiaodexufangxiaojiedangshixinlizhiyoutadelaoshihushi,cengduihushixianshengzhankaidadanzhuiqiu。zheiduanlianaigushidejutixiangqing,kecanjiancaidengshan《shishengzhiqingnan“rengle”?——hushiweiwanchengdelianqu》yiwen(zai《wanxiang》,2006nian6yuehao)。

yabo88登录 1938nian5yuejian,qingshangshiliandexufangxinhuiyileng,laidaohankou,zaiyiwenyanjiuhuicongshiyabo88dengluzhuce。dangshitengguhaizaiguominzhengfudexingzhengyuanrencanshi,youyuzhanshichijin,xingzhengyuanzhunbeicongwuhanneiqiandaozhongqing,guertajingchanglaiwangyuwuhanhezhongqingzhijian。tayucanshichenkewenweitongshi,liangrenyouyishenhou。

6yue13ri,tenggudedaojiaoyuburenming,pinweiguoliyishuzhuankexuexiaoxiaozhang,bujiujiangfuxiangxiyuanlinglvxin。17ri,zhangdaofanheduanmukaishewuyanweitenggusongxing,chenkewenyezaizuo,“kerenyouchenlifubuzhang、guyuxiucizhang、liangshiqiu、xufangxiaojie、yangxiujuanxiaojie、moxiaojie、luojunqiangjikongxiaojie。fanhou,xiaojiemengeyifangyandushi,xuxiaojiezhibeipinghua,yangxiaojiezhisuzhouhua,moxiaojiezhishanghaihua,kongxiaojiezhiguangzhouhua,jungeyoufengqu。”(《chenkewenriji》,ye228)

zheidagaishitengguyuxufangzaiwuhandediyicijianmian,tamenyiqiankenengjiurenshi,xufangdebiyelunwen《zhongguoxinshishi》,tenggudangnianjiushenyueguo,hailiuyouqianming。

yabo88登录 tengguzaiwuhanyizhidaidao24ri,caiqichengquzhangsha。tazaizhangshatingliulesitian,xufangyequlezhangsha,tengguduitajiweiqingxin,haibacishixiexinbaogaohaoyouchenkewen(shenningbianzhu《tenggunianpuzhangbian》,ye443,shanghaishuhuachubanshe,2019nian)。

6yue29ri,tenggudaoyuanlingguoliyizhuan,zhengshidaoren,bingkaishizheshouzhengdunxiaowu。yigeduoyuehoude7yue31ri,xufanglikaiwuhan,zhangdaofan、duanmukai、chenkewendengrenweitasheyanjianxing。tayiluzhuanzhan,dagaizaidangnian9、10yuejiandaodakunming,bingzaiyunnandaxuemoudejiaozhi。

yabo88登录 jiuzaidangnian11yue,zhangshafashengdahuo,zhanhuoriyimanyan,zhi12yuezhongxiaxun,tenggulvlingyizhuanshishengfenpicongyuanlingqicheng,yiluqianyizhiguiyang,zuihoudaodayunnankunming。1939nian2yuedi,quantishishengfenpididakunming,bingkaishifuke。dangshidekunmingshikangrizhanzhengdedahoufang,xiangxinanliandadengzhongduowenhuayuanxiaohexueshuyabo88dengludouqianyidaozheili,yishichengweiwenrenxuezhe、qingnianxueshengdejujidi,qifenrenaohuoyue。buxiaoshuo,ruciheshidefenwei,yeweitengguhexufangdelianaifazhantigonglewenchuang。

yabo88登录 tengguzaikunminghewumidengxuejiewenrenjiaowangpinmi。wumishi“aiqingzhishang”zhuyizhe,dangshizhengxiangzhongxinzhuiqiumaoyanwen,kuyuwurenweitazhidianmijin,paiyoujienan。zhenghaopengdaotenggu,yushijingchangxiangtawenji。tengguzehaoweirenshi,dadalieliedangqitade“qingganzhuanjia”lai。yushiliangrenjingchangpengmian,wumigengchongdangqitahexufangliangrendexinshi。

tengguhexufangdelianai,suiranjintianliuxiadedoushigezhongsuipian,danzuyigoulechuyigeqingqingwowodedagai。biruxiamianzheishoutenggudewuyanshi《cuihu》,xieyu1939nian9yue1ri,congzhongjikekuibanjianbao:

经岁结绸缪,寸心忻有讬。平生慕慷慨,汝亦重然诺。今夕何夕乎?凉飔凄帷幕。低眉似有恨,酬对言落落。问汝何愁闷,问汝何思索。侧身久无语,我心如焚灼。移时拂袖出,苍莽步林壑。执手始为言,肺腑吐盘错。众口但悠悠,炎凉难忖度。讥嘲噂沓来,令我心情恶。我亦血肉躯,焉能常示弱。好胜激所取,是非良凿凿。忧忿易伤人,汝怀且宽拓。蚍蜉撼不已,大树无损削。前哲不我欺,其言炳昭焯。窃恐有累汝,耿耿萌惭怍。至理或如斯,君言可咀嚼。嗟哉同心人,气谊诚未薄。珍重此一晤,馀事尽糟粕。吻汝手掌别,愿汝长康乐。星月灿风霄,澄澜荡绰约。回首渺天人,嫣然在寥廓。

zheishoushiqingjingjiaorong,xierelianzhongdeguniangshoubuleliuyanfeiyu,choumeibuzhan,shenyeliheshirenchulai,qingsukumen。neishirenbaibanquanwei,zhongyushiguniangjiechufannao,potierxiao。cishiwanquankeyikanzuotalianglianaideyigechaqu,xiezhaoshengdong。yinianchuchun,tengguhaitebiechaojijihaoyouchangrenxiayifen,moti:“jiuyueyirizhiyeguizicuihu,zhuancebunengchengmei,yizhenzuoci,buzhidongfangzhijibai。qinglaibayu,renxiawuxiongxunjijinzuo,zhelufengliangzheng……”kejiantengguduizheiduanqingshipoweideyi,duizijidezheishoushigengshizijin。

tengfurenhenkuaidezhixiaoxi,limacongzhongqingzhuidaokunming。

chenkewenxianqiandebao,ganjinjitenggutongfengbaoxin。guolejitian,tenggufuxin,tantafurenlaikunminghoudeyingduichuli:“haozaidijieshenzihao,ouyounvyouwanghai,yijipingdanwuqi,qiedichangchangyoujiexin,gubuzhiluoxieloudongye。”qishi,tengguzaixinlizhishiguzuoqingsong,meiyoudaochushiqing。chenkewenhoulaicaizhidao,pengyouguanbomiancongkunmingdaozhongqinggao,tengfurendaokunminghou,batenggudadebiantilinshang,jingzhiyubunengchulaijianren,kunmingdepengyoudouweitadabaobuping。chenkewenwenzhibushengjingyagantan,“zheiyangdedufuhanfuguranbuduojian,ruoquzheiyangdeyinrenqianjiuyeshidaguaishi”(《chenkewenriji》,1940nian1yue5ri)。

nanguaiwumiyezai12yue3riderijilishuo,neitiantabenlaishixianyaoyuetenggu、xufangdengrenyiqichifande,jieguotenggulaixinyaoqiugaiqi,haidetayiyixiexintongzhiquxiaoyuanyue。yizhidao27rixiawu,tamencaizaioumeiguanjiandao。

1940nian3yuechu,tengguzaizhongqinghuijianlehenduolaoyou,daoyuezhongcaihuikunming。bujiu,laopohaiziyemashanggenleguolai。wumimashangqingchu,tengtaitaidemudemingxianjiushi“jianshiqifu”。zaijuhuishang,haidangchangfanjianwumixieshuzhongyouwujiadaisixin,tengguzhihao“zongtanxueshu”。wumishenshouciji,juedetengfurenzhongzhongxingjishizhongrengewuru。diertianzaoshangxinglai,taganchuliangduo,zaizhenshangzuole《jiweiruoqushiershou》,anweitenggu。shizhongyou“shishuwenzichengyibang,enaiziyoufujiehui”“yitongpengmaodangluzhang,gengkanjingjimanyuanzai”dengju,duitengfurendabiaobuman。tenggukanle,chuyudanxiaojinshen,teyidingzhutashitizhongqudiao“wei”zi,youyaowumigailejichu(《wumiriji》,di7ce,ye151)。

tengguhexufangdeguanxiyushijijikewei。4yue17ri,wumijiedaotengguhuixin,biaoshitawuyilihun,yimingzhizichu。wumidubacixin,duitadetuiquegandaohenshiwang,juedetatailixing、taikezhi。

yabo88登录 qijian,tenggutaitaihaidaoxuexiaoqutanchajiujing。jideshiduonianqian,dangnianyizhuanxueshengdingtianquexianshengjiucengqinkougaosubizhe,tamenzaikunmingdushudeshihou,youhaojicikandaoxiaozhangtengguzaiqianmiantao,laopozaihoumianzhuidechangjing,juedefeiyisuosi。

7yue1ri,guoliyizhuanzhaoligaipinjiaoyuan,yinjiepinjiaowuzhangfangganmindaozhixueshengxiangxiaozhangtengguqingyuan,zaotenggujujue,yinfaxuechao,naodaotenggujueshikangyi,xingshifeichangyanjun。yizhidao4ri,youdangjuwulichumiancaijiangxuechaopingxi,bajiaoshifangganminhexueshengdingtianque、wuzangshikaichu。tengguxinlijiaocui,shenganxuexiaoneibumaodunfuza,yushixiebaogaojijiaoyubu,qingqiucizhi。

yabo88登录 tengxuzheichanglianaiyesuizhihuashangjuhao。8yue18ri,xufangqingwumizaiguanshengyuanzaocan,zhengshibiaomingzijiyihetenggufenshou。9yue,jiaoyubujuedingyaojiangguoliyizhuanbanqiandaozhongqingbishan。xiaozhangtenggumangyuqianxiao,choukongbazijide《jiuririji》tuofuwumiyongjiubaocun。wumixidutenggu《jiuririji》,“gantanguzhiaifang,heyimixizhiaiyan。erfangyizaoyibieyousuoshu。aiqingzhe,zaijisuizhen,erzairenbukeshenjiudiyun。dadirusiye!”(《wumiriji》,1940nian9yue24ri)zheifenriji,wumiyizhizhenzangdaowannian,buzhirujinshangcuntianrangfou。

guanyutenggubingshideyuanyin,putongdoushuotashi“chuhuanexingnveji,xuanbingfaleimoyan、naomoyan”,yinerzuihoubingmo。

yabo88登录 danwumizairijizhongquejichulelingwaishuofa:“tengjundaoyujibing。banzaihou,fuchuyiyuanhuijia。tuzhongfuzaoqitaitaiyuxianbuzhizhiliumangdudayidun,shouzhongshang。zaijinyiyuan,zuyubenyueershirishangwu7:30shishiyi。”(1941nian5yue25ri)anzhaozheiyishuofa,zao“liumangduda”zhishiyinggaifashengzai4、5yuejian。

zheitiaoxiaoxishiguliangxiexingaosuwumide,anguliangshiguoliyizhuanzhiyuan,shitenggudexinfuganjiang,tengguhexufangdelaiwangtazuiqingchu,suoyiyinggaibushikongxuelaifeng。houlai,yunnandaxueyabo88dengluyuandehuxiaoshi(1888—1962)yehewumishuo,“yinqiqizaiyiyuanzhongyuguzhengchao,guqifen,naoyunersi”(1943nian12yue16ri,《wumiriji》dijiuce,ye164)。《chenkewenriji》zhongyetidao,1940nian12yue11rixiawu,chenkewendengrenqianwangyiyuantanshitenggu。tafurendangzhebingrenhepengyoudemian,zaibingfanglidanaojiatingjiufen,zaixianchangnongdechenkewendengrenhenganga,buzhidaoshuoshenmehuacaihao,zhihaozhanlejifenzhong,tuilechulai。taweicigantan:“meiyouzhishidenvrenzhenbuyiduifu。zheiyangdenaoxianranshiruoqubingyuanzhiyi,yetongshihuijiazhongbingshide。”(《chenkewenriji》,ye648)■