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抒写战争中的人性光芒 ——抗美援朝yabo88登录作品回顾
来源:文艺报 | 林晨  2020年10月23日08:21
关键词:

1950nian6yuechaoxianzhanzhengbaofa,dangnian10yuezhanhuoyanshaozhiyalvjiangpan,chengliyishidezhonghuarenmingongheguobudebucangcuyingzhan、chubingchaoxian,congerkaiqilelishisanniande“kangmeiyuanchao、baojiaweiguo”dezhuanglielicheng。zheichangzhanzhengshenkeniuzhuanlecihoudeshijiegeju,yeshijiaozhangeguodeguoyunyuminshengweizhigaixie,qiyingxiangzhijinrengzai。zhongguoyabo88denglucongzuikaishijiujianzhengzhezheichangzhanzheng,jishinianlaiyishuyiqianjidezuopintongguoxushuyushuqing、guwuyuganzhao、huiguyusikao,weizhifengfuzheyiyi。shizhijinri,guorenguanyuzheichangzhanzhengdejiyidaduolaiziyuyabo88dengluyishudezaixian。

1952nian4yue1ri,zhongguoyabo88dengluyishujiadaibiaotuanyuchaoxianyabo88dengluyishujiatongmengfuweiyuanzhanglitaijunzaipingrangwenhuaxuanchuanshengdedalouqianheying。

yabo88登录 1952nian4yue20ri,yubajinyiqishenrushachuanheqianyanzhendidehuangguliu,jibajin(zhong)yuzhiyuanjun577tuanlianchuanfanjizhangudanyingxiongxushen(zuo)he65junxuanchuanganshiwanghuanpaixiazheizhangzhenguideheying。

yijiuwuerniansiyueyiri,huangguliupaixiatongxingzhanyouzaipingrangwenhuaxuanchuanshengdalouqianheying,zuoqi:lirui、lufei、bajin、geluo、wangxijian。

1951nian3yue5ri,huangguliufengmingdidabeijing,8rizhongwudaowenhuabuxijuyinlekejianlichao、sunshendengren,mantanbeijingxijuhuodonggaikuang,bingweizhongrenpaizhao:qianpaizuo4shizhangguangnian,houpaiyou1shi《jiuwangjinxingqu》dezuoqujiasunshen。

yabo88登录 1951nian,shoujiezhongguorenminfuchaoweiwentuanguiguohou,huangguliujitongxingzhanyoumenpaiheyingliunian。qianpaizuoershinvyabo88denglubailang。

(摄影:黄谷柳,以上图片均由黄茵提供)

weiweidebaogaoyabo88denglu《sheishizuikeaideren》(1951)shikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhongchanshengguozuidayingxiangdezuopinzhiyi。weiweizaiwenzhongkaizongmingyi:“sheishiwomenzuikeaiderenni?womendezhanshi,wogandaotamenshizuikeaideren。yexuhaiyourenxinliyinyinyueyuedishuo:nishuodejiushineixie‘bing’ma?tamenkanlaishihenpingfan、henjiandandeli,jikanbuchutamenyoushenmegaoshendezhishi,youkanbuchutamenyoushenmefengfudeganqing。keshi,woyaoshuo,zheishiyouyutagenwomendezhanshijiechutaishao,haimeiyoulejiewomendezhanshi:tamendepinzhishineiyangdechunjiehegaoshang,tamendeyizhishineiyangdejianrenhegangqiang,tamendeqizhishineiyangdechunpoheqianxun,tamendexionghuaishineiyangdemeilihekuanguang!”cihou,bajin、luling、yangshuodengzhumingyabo88dengluhewushuyabo88dengluyabo88dengluzhucezhedouchuangzuochudaliangfanyingzhiyuanjunzhanshimenzhanzhengshenghuodezuopin。shizhixinshiji,wangshuzengxiexiajishiyabo88denglu《yuandong:chaoxianzhanzheng》(hougaiming《chaoxianzhanzheng》)shi,tayecong“shibing”deqidianzhongxinchufa:“shibing,zhanzhengzhongzuiputong、zuizhongyao、zuidashuliangderen,tamenchengweiwoyabo88dengluzhuce《chaoxianzhanzheng》deweiyidongyin。”shide,jiushizheixieputongpingfandeshibing,chengweilekangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhongwukezhengyidezhujiao,shikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhengtijingguanzhongzuixingmudexingxiang。

yabo88登录 yabo88dengluzhucemenzaishuxiezheixieshibingshi,tourulexinxueyuqinggan,yeyizijideshijianweizhongguozhanzhengyabo88denglupuxielexindexuanlv。zuichu,yabo88dengluweixiangyingdangshizhanzhengshijidexuyao,chuangzuoledaliangougezhiyuanjunzhanshiyingyongshijidezuopin,suiranconghoushiyabo88denglushideyanguangguanzhi,zheixiezuopindaduodouhuisuishidailiuzhuaneryinmei,dantamendejiazhibuzhiyuci,tamenbijingshineigeshidaiyoulidezhange,yezaizhanhuozhongshijiguwuzhezhanshimendexinling。tongshi,zhongguodejiechuyabo88denglumenyehenkuaijiubuzhuodaolexindexuanlv。lulingde《zhanshidexin》(1953)xizhidongrendikehualeyigezhinenzhanshizaizhanhuozhongxunsuchengzhangdexinlinglicheng。bajinde《tuanyuan》(1961)yinvwengongtuanyuanwangfangdeshenshi,qiandongfubeidiedangqifudegeminglicheng,pojugemingchuanqidesecai。weiweidezhangpianxiaoshuo《dongfang》suiranyinxiaoshuozhongdaliangcharugainianxingdebichueryidingchengdushangyingxianglezuopindeyishuchengjiu,danzhengbuzuopinyishibingguoxiangdechengzhangjingliyixiansuo,duichaoxianzhanzhengbolanzhuangkuodeguochengzuolequanjingxingdemiaoxie,juyoushishideguimo。wangshuzengdejishiyabo88denglu《chaoxianzhanzheng》zhongjixulejishiweijutizhanshikegekeqidezhuanglieshiji。tongshi,wangshuzengzaiyixiedifangtupoleyiwangkangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhangehesonggemoshi,tongguoduizhanshideshuxie,erxiechuleciqianshaoyoudebeichuangdexuanlv。zaixujidipinglizhizhanshi,zuozheyijianjiepingshideyuyanxiedao:“5rixiawu,zhongguojunduitingzhilegongji。duidipingligongjidetingzhishizaizhongguojicengjunguandejianjueyaoqiuxiajuedingde。zaizhongguojunduidezhanshizhong,xiajizhihuiyuanzaizhandouzhongxiangshangjizhihuiyuantichu‘buda’deyaoqiu,dipinglishuhanjianyili。”“zhanshideshangwangshizaishitaidale,yijingbunengzaizheiyangshangwangxiaqule。”erzaizuopinmoweichudeyigeshenzhibuzhidaomingzidexiaozhanshidejingli,youweilingrendongrong:

前线,一名中国军队的小战士奉命往前沿阵地送一个命令。这张写着命令的字条被折好揣在他的上衣里。通往前沿的炮火不知为什么在今天变得异样的猛烈,小战士奔跑着,躲避着,不时地从这个弹坑跳到另一个弹坑,敌人射来的炮弹追着他,掀起的泥土几次把他埋起来。他不想死,尽管这条路上已经有那么多的中国士兵死去了,他只想尽快完成任务。他几次去摸他的前胸,那张命令还在。就要接近阵地的时候,小战士被炸倒了,醒来的时候,他发现自己的一只脚齐着脚腕断了,断脚就在不远的地方,还穿着胶鞋。小战士脸色苍白地躺了一会儿,开始往阵地上爬,他一只手用力,另一只手抱着自己的那只断脚,他想等爬到了自己的阵地脚就能接上了。小战上爬上阵地的时候已是黄昏,他看见天边有一轮很红很红的夕阳。昏迷前他把那张命令从胸前掏了出来。

命令:今晚二十二时正式停战。届时不准射出一枪一炮。

指挥员拿着命令看了看表:二十时整。

离朝鲜战争正式停战仅仅还有两个小时。

指挥员把小战士抱起来,大声喊:“来三个人把他背下去!不准让他死了!拿着他的这只脚!”

youshihepingshixuyaozhanzhenglaibaoweide,keshizaizhanzhengzhong,jishiyigedachenghepingdexinxi,yexuyaoshibingdexianxuelaichuandi。zheiduanduiyigexiaozhanshideyabo88denglujixu,yibirenhelishidelunshuodougengchudongrenxindefangshi,quanshizhezhanzhengdecankuhewunai。

《dongfang》

yabo88登录 《sheishizuikeaideren》

《chaoxianzhanzheng》

yabo88登录 zaikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhong,zhiyuanjungaojijianglingxingxiangtongyangzaibushaozuopinzhongdeyichengxianqieyinrenzhumu。bajin《tuanyuan》zhongdejunzhengzhibuzhurenwangdong,mianduihaiyiwusuozhi、weicengxiangrendeqinshengnverwangfang,zhanshichudekezhideciailingrendongrong,gengyinxiaoshuogaibiandedianying《yingxiongernv》erjiayuhuxiao。zhiyuanjunsilingyuanpengdehuaishikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhongzuixingmudejianglingxingxiang。bajindejishiyabo88denglu《womenhuijianlepengdehuaisilingyuan》(1952)shidangshifeichangzhumingdewenzhang,wenzhongduipengdehuaitongzhidezansongyishikuaizhirenkou:“tabuyuanyibierenduotitademingzi,keshiquanshijiederenmindouzunjingtaweiyigeweidadehepingzhanshi。quanshijiedemuqindouganxieta,yinweitajiulechaoxiandemuqinhehaizi。quanzhongguoderenmindouyuanyidaotamianqianshuoyijuganxiedehua,yinweitabaohuzhezuguodemuqinhehaizimendehepingshenghuo。”wenzhongpengzongdexingxiangshencaiyiyi,you“birendemuguang”,“yishenjiandandejunfu,yizhangposhidegongrendelian,tazhanzaiwomenmianqianxiandehengaodahenianqing”。weiweizai《dongfang》zhongduipengdehuaidexingxiangyexiazulegongfu,zaixujichubingchaoxianjueceguochengzhongdepengzongdesikaoyuxingzhishi,keyikandechulaishiqieshimiaomole《pengdehuaizishu》zhongdexushu,henduoxijiedoufuheruoqi;zaixujichaoxianzhandouguochengshi,zuozheyixiaoshuojiadebifajinxingleshenghua:“pengzongtingdaozuihouyiju,gandaoxingqule,taweiweiyixiao”,“taxiangyigelaoyuweng,chenzheeryoujianrendizuozaibotaoxiongyongdejianganshang”,shipengzongdezhihuijiandingyueranzhishang。50duonianzhihou,guorendexintaikeyigengjiacongrongdijieshouneiduanlishile。wangshuzengzai《chaoxianzhanzheng》zhongjiaoweizhenshikeguandizhanxianlebaokuopengdehuaizaineidezhuduozhiyuanjunjianglingdequnxiang。qizhong38junjunzhangliangxingchu,yindiyicizhanyidadebulixiangerbeipengzongxunchihouerzhanxiandejueqiangxingge,lingrenyinxiangshenke。gaojijianglingmianlindejiannanyezaizuopinzhongbeizhenshizhanxian,zaixuji60jun180shizaidiwucizhanyizhongxianruzhongweishi,“zaidi60jundejunbuli,yizhongdahuolintoudeqifenzaichenmozhongmimanzhe。jitianjiyemeiyoushuijuedejunzhangweijiegandaoshenjingyijingkuaiyaobengduanle。”zuopinxiezhicichu,pengdehuaidexingxiangyouqilingrenzhendong:“jifenzhonghou,hongxuezhidejipuchechongjinmangmangdayuzhong。shangaoluxian,heshuibaozhang,haipakongxibunengkaidengdejipuchezaiheianzhongzouzoutingting,shenyeshifen,hongxuezhizhongyudaodalekongsidong。shandongli,zhichuanzheyitiaoduanku,chiluoshangshendepengdehuaiyigerenzailazhuguangxialaihuiduobu。kanjianhunshenshitoudehongxuezhi,pengdehuaiyongzuidichendeshengyinshuo:‘chushile。’”

yabo88登录 womenjintianzaiyuedulegezhonglishiyanjiudechengguohou,dangrankeyimingleyigeshishi:dangnianzhiyuanjundetongshuaihejianglingmenjuebukenengshicongrongbupode。tamenlvlingzhequefahouqinbaozhangdejundui,shenruyiguoyudangshishijieshangyongyouzuiqiangjunbeidejunduiduikang。zaimoshengdehuanjingxia,tamenjinpingshouzhongzuijianloudezhenchashouduanhuodedeyidianxinxi,quebixuyaozaishunxiwanbiandezhanchangshangzuochujuece。jiangjunyiyan,qianwanzhanshijiuyaoweizhifusi,keyishuodangshidemeiyidaojunlingdoushizaijidudejiaozhuozhongxiadade,zheizhongjingshenyaliduiwulunduomejianqiangderendoushijudadezhemo。yabo88dengluzhongdetongshuaiyujianglingmendexingxiangdeyigengzhenshidizhanxianshi,tamenshishishanghuodeleduzhegengshencengcidejingpei,zheiyebiaozhizheyabo88dengluduizheichangzhanzhengderenshigengjiachengshu,zheizhongchengshushisuiyuedailaide。

bajin《tuanyuan》

yabo88登录 luling《wadishangde“zhanyi”》

zaishuxiechaoxianzhanzhengshi,ruherenshijiaozhangefangdeguojiayuminzu,shikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluwufahuibidewenti,zheiyeguanhuduizhanzhengyiyideyanshuo。mianduizheiyiwenti,kangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhongyabo88denglumendejibenlichang,haowuyiwendihaishiqingqingshuxiezhongchaoliangguojunmintongchoudikai、fankangqinlve。zaicijichushang,weiletuchudirendechoue,yabo88denglumendaliangcaiyongchouhuashenzhimanhuahuadefangshimiaoxiemeijun,cizhonganlizaikangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhongfushoujieshi,“cangbaide,chuizhesongtatadesaibang,shanzhexiongedeyanguang,zhangzhezhangmaodeshou,zihongdezuichun,shitamenshalewomenderen,shitamenhelewomendexue”,kanjiantajiu“xiangturankanjianyitiaozuiededusheyiyang”(liubaiyu《anyuji》) ,“lianggeyanlvyingyingdi,luchuelangyibandexiongguang”(weiwei《dongfang》)。

zaizheiyiyabo88denglujinchengzhong,lulingquexiandegewaixingmu。zai《zhanshidexin》zhong,tayouyiduanshuxiexiaozhanshizhangfulinyuyigemeiguoshibingxialuxiangfeng、nisiwohuodeshunjian:

在照明弹的亮光下,张福林一瞬间看见了这个瘦长的、十八九岁的美国兵的一对充满恐怖的眼睛。这美国兵战栗了一下,就像是僵了一样,不能动弹了。由于这突然的情况,张福林一瞬间也怔住了。这是很短暂的时间,双方都没有动作。这个美国兵的恐怖,紧张的眼光没有离开张福林的迫人的、静止的枪口,却不觉地移动着右脚向后退,显然是,他虽然明白逃跑就是死亡,却不得不逃跑了。而张福林所注视的,却不是敌人的枪口——他注视着敌人恐怖的眼睛;他一瞬间仿佛又听见了班长的严厉的喊声,这个支持了他。他肯定他已经战胜了敌人。美国兵一动弹,他就开枪了。于是这个敌人发出了一声绝望的嚎叫旋转着身子倒下去了。“谁叫你到朝鲜来的!”张福林想,跳过这个美国兵向前跑去。

yabo88登录 zaizheili,meiguoshibingbingfeichouedeyaomo,erbuguoshiyigexiangzhangfulinyiyangzhiqiweituodexiaohuozi,zailiangrenhuranzaoyudeshengsixiangbodeshike,shuangfangdouyishibuzhisuocuo。“yabo88denglushirenxue”,zheishiduomezhengchangderendefanying。erzaidasizheigemeiguoshibinghou,zhangfulinbingmeiyoushasi“guizi”deshengliganjue,ershiyiyiju“sheijiaonilaichaoxiande”chuandichuyisiwunai。zhengshizaizheiyangdexijieshang,lulingbushizaixie“gui”,ershizaixie“ren”,tazhanxianleduizhanzhengzhongderenxingdetansuoyusikao,zheizaidangshideyujingxiashinannengkeguide。

yabo88登录 yezhengshizaixie“ren”dewentishangdeshenrusikao,shilulingzaimiaoxiezhongchaojunminqingyishiyeyidingchengdushangzuolegengshenru、gengdongrendeqingganshuxie。xiaoshuo《wadishangde“zhanyi”》(1953)shuxiezhiyuanjunxiaozhanshiwangyinghongyuchaoxianguniangjinshengjizhijianmenglongdeaiqingmengya,zuopinyiwangyinghongzhuangliexishenghou,banzhangjiangzhanzhewangyinghongxianxuedeshoupasonghaijinshengjierjieshu,zaizhuangliejiangdekangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluzhuliuzhong,liuxialenandedeqiwandongrendexuanlv。xiaoshuo《chuxue》(1953)zhongmeiyouxisheng、xianxue、chouhen,youyixinidexinlikehuadadongrenxin。xiaoshuomiaoxiezhiyuanjunqichelianfengmingyunsongchaoxianfunvhehaizichelizhanqu,18suidefujiashiwangdegui“fengming”zaijiashishifuzuolibaohaizi,tagangkaishishijuedezheishi “popomamadeshibushinanrengande”,danpoyuminglingzhinenghenbenzhuodi“xiangpengzheyipenreshuisidepengzhehaizi”,kezaiciguochengzhong,tazonggandaoyigechaoxianguniangxiaoyinyindikanzheta,tafenbuqingzheishichaoxiaohaishiguanqie。“cheyitingxialaifunvmenjiutiaoxiachelaipaodaoqianmiandakaichemen,yikan,yuanlaitazaineilijihaiziweishuini;neigetoushangbaozhehuagezimaojindenongmeimaodeguniang,zhanzairenmenhoumianyishengbuxiangditoukanzheta。”“youchuanchuleneigeyonghuagezimaojinbaozhetoudeguniangdexiaosheng,suiranxiaodehenqing,wangdeguirengranyixiazijiutingchulaile。‘youxiaowome?’taxiang。”zheishiyisiweimiaode、shaozongjishideqingchunqingsu,lulingquexinidijiangzhishuxiechulai,rangzheiduanzaizhanhuolizhongchaojunmingongtongxingjindelvtubiandefuyouwennuanderenxingguangmang。yezhengshizaizheigeqinggandeherenxingdeweidushang,lulingzhongxinrongzhulechaoxianzhanzhengzhongdeguozushuxie,congershitadezuopinjuyoutuchudeyabo88denglushiyiyi。

zaizhanzhenghezhengzhiyiyishang,chaoxianzhanzhengyijingtingzhan67nian,danzhongguoyabo88dengludui“kangmeiyuanchao”lichengdexushuheshuxie,congweitingzhiyebijiangyongyuanchixu。renmenzhanzaixindelishiqingjingxia,duizheiduanlishibijiangyouxindeyanshuohesikao。zaizheigeyiyishang,zhongguodekangmeiyuanchaoyabo88dengluweicenggufuzijideshiming,danzaishizherusidelishiheliuzhong,yezhengyoukaituoheshenhuadekongjian。