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越对立的越相像——鲁迅和他的祖父周福清
来源:“三联韬奋书店”微信公众号 | 黄坚  2020年10月22日08:41
关键词:

luxundezufuzhoufuqinggenshaoxingzhoujiataimenliduoshurendouxiangchudebutaihao,danfazhandaoduilichengdude,zhiyouluxun。

luxunzaigongkaidewenzili,congmeitidaoguotadezufu,dantadefumuqueduocichuxianzaitadebiduan,bingjirenliuxialejiaoshendeyinxiang。ruguojuciyiweiluxundezufuzailuxunshengmingzhong,shigewuzuqingzhongderen,neijiubeiluxun“wudao”le。shishiqiaqiaxiangfan,zailuxunsuoyoudejiazurenshizhong,zufuzhoufuqingshiduiluxunyingxiangzuidadeyigeren——ruguozheigemingebushiguiyuzhouzuorendehua。

luxunchushengdeshihou,zhoufuqingzhengzaijingchenghoubu。zheishiyiduantongku、nanaodeshiguang。suoyidangzhangsunchushidexiaoxichuandaojingcheng,nianqingzufu(zhoufuqingshinian44sui)dexiyuexinqingshibuyaneryude。jushuoxiaoxichuandaoshi,shifengzhangzhidonglaibaifang——zheishigehenyouyiwendejushuo——yushizhoufuqingjixinshengsunerqumingwei“zhang”,jiruming,huoxiaoming,bingyou“zhang”zigenjutongyinyiyideguanchangzuofa,lianxiangdaozhangshudezhang,yushijisunerquxuemingweizhangshou,zheishiluxunzhenzhengdebenming,huozheshuoyuanming。zaiyouzhangzilianxiangdaoyuzhang(shifouyucengzaijiangxiweiguanyouguan?),jisunerquziweiyushan。benlai,anzuizaodeshuofa,mingshiyoushisuoqu,zizeyaodaochengnianshicaiyou,suowei“youmingguanzi”,dankanlaizhishaozaiqingchaomoqi,qiangbaozhongdeyingeryijingyouzile。zhoufuqingyigunaojisunerqudexiaoming、xueminghezi,congyihoulaikan,sihudoubutaichenggong,zhangshouzheigebenminghuoyuanming,zuizhongfeiqibuyong,beizhoushurenjiqudaile(xianzaidajiadoubazhoushurenkanzuoluxundeyuanming,qishiyangeshuobushi)。zini,youyuyushanxieyinyusan,shinianyoudeluxunjingchangzaodaotongbanquxiao,shuo,he,yusanlaile,yushiluxunyangqiuzufugaiming。qichugaiweiyuting,zheigegaidongyebutaichenggong——rengranweituoligenyudeganxi:“yuting”。buduojiuyougaiweiyucai,zheicaizhongyubaituole“yu”dejiuchan,yisiyehaoduole,suanshiyichuidingyin。yucaizheigemingzihoulaiyongdejiaoduo,ruzhangtaiyandengluxunzaoqishiyouhetongshi,bitanianzhangxiede,huoyutanianjixiangfangde,douxiguanduitayiyucaixiangcheng,luxunzijiyemanxihuanzheigemingzi,zhidaolinzhongqiandouzaiyongta。

biaomianshangkan,zhoufuqingjizhangsunqudemingzi,houlaidoubutaiweirensuozhi,sihuguiyushibaile,danqishi,zhoushurenzheigexianzaibeijieshaoweiluxunyuanmingdemingzi,xianrangenzhoufuqingzuichujiluxunsuoqudemingzi,youmingxiandeyuanyuanguanxi。woshenzhihuaiyiluxunde“xun”zi,chulebiedeyisiheqiyinwai,conggenyuanshangshuo,yegen“shu”youguan。

kejian,luxunshengmingzhongbingfeiwuzuqingzhongdedongxi,zitayichushengqi,jiugentadezufulianxizaiyiqile,bingqiebansuiletadeyisheng。

danzheibufenguanlianxing,zailuxundeshengmingzhong,zailuxunyuqizufudeguanxishang,zhinengshuoshixuquxingde。luxunshengmingzhongdiyidaozhenzhengdeweimu,yeshiyouzhoufuqingyishoulakaide。

1903年3月,剪辫之后的鲁迅摄于东京

1883nian,zhoufuqingyoujingfanxiangtanqin,zheiyinggaishizhoufuqingdiyicijiandaozijidezhangsun,yeshidangshiweiyidesuner(zhouzuorenyaodao1885niancaichusheng)。danliangsansuidezhouzhangshou,xianranwufaduizheiweiwanquanmoshengdezufuliuxiarenheqingxideyinxiang。luxungenzufudezaiyicijianmian,yishishinianhoude1894nian,zhoufuqinghuijiabenmusang,zheinianluxunyiyoushisansisuile。

yabo88登录 luxungenzufujianmian、xiangchudeshijianbuzhang,yinweijiuzaizheinianqiyue,fashenglehongdongyishide“zhoufuqingkechanghuiluan”。zheiqianjianzaidangshirucidiyingxiangyishi,yizhiyu《qingshigao·dezongbenji》lihaidaileyibi:

十九年十二月癸酉,刑部奏革员周福清于考官途次函通关节,拟杖流,改斩监候。

yabo88登录 zheijianshiqingduiyuluxunyishengdeyingxiang,zaoyizhongsuozhouzhi。

zhoufuqingzaianfabujiu,jitouanzishou,suihoubeiguanruhangzhoujianyu。genjuxianyouziliao,luxunchulediyicizhuanchengtanwangwai,houlaizhizaiyouxiandejiciyuxuexiaoyushaoxingdewangfantuzhong,qujianyukanwangguozufu。houlailuxundaoribenliuxue,diernianshujiahuiguoshi,zhoufuqingyiyushefanghui,zusunliangzaijialihaijianguoyici。zongeryanzhi,luxungenzufuzhoufuqing,yishengzhongjiaqilaijianmiandeshijian,zuiduozhizaiyinianshangxia,shixiongdisanrenzhong,genzufuxiangchushijianzuiduandeyige。

yabo88登录 zheihuibuhuiyingxiangdaoluxunyuzufudeqingganguanxi?

yabo88登录 1946nian10yue,zhoujianrenxieleyipian《luxunqushiyijingshinianle》dewenzhang,zhuyaojiangshuleluxunyuzufuzhoufuqingdeguanxi,jiangliangrenzuoleyifanbijiao。zhoujianrenzaiwenzhangzhongshuo:“luxunfeichangyufumuyaohao,danbudaxihuanzufu”,“luxunbuxihuantadezufu”。houlai,zai1949nianhouxiedeyipianwenzhangli,zhoujianrenyouyou“luxunyuta(zhizhoufuqing)deguanxibuhenhao,tamenjianmianyehenshao”,“ganqingbuhaodeyuanyin”denghuayu。

luxunyuzufuguanxibuhao,youshenmelizheng?

zaizhoujianrenkoushu、zhouyebianxiede《luxungujiadebailuo》yishuzhong,youjijianshiqing,keyikanchuluxunyuzhoufuqingdeguanxizhuangtai。

乌大菱壳的故事

1903nian,zhengzairibenliuxuedeluxunhuijiatanqin。shunbianshuoyiju,zheicihuijia,duiluxunlaishuo,shirenshengdeyidaofenshuiling,yinweitahezhuandehunshi,jiuzaizheicihuijiazhongqueding,suiranliangrendezhengshijiehun,wanchengyusannianhoude1906nian。quguozhihouxiongdisanrendezaicizhongfeng(zhouzuorenshizainanjingdushu,yezhenghaochenshujiahuijia),rangsanxiongdihuanxinbuyi。

我们三兄弟的话是说不完的,从楼上说到楼下,从楼下说到廊夏,从廊夏说到明堂。有一天黄昏,我们三人站在桂花明堂里,又在谈论些什么。祖父从房里出来,站在阶沿上,笑嘻嘻地对我们说:“乌大菱壳汆到一起来了!”

“乌大菱壳”是绍兴方言,意思是没用的垃圾或废物。

我们明白祖父又在骂人了,骂我们是废物。我的两个哥哥恨恨地看他一眼,但祖父浑然不觉,又转身回房里去了。我们三兄弟给他一骂,兴趣索然,三人分头走散。

qishi,zaizhongguodejiatingshenghuozhong,jishizaijintian,fuzizhijian,zusunzhijian,tuokoushuochuzhuru“xiaotuzaizi”huo“xiaowangbadan”zhileidecuhua,naishixiyiweichangdeshi,qizhenshideyuyi,budanbushimaren,fanershizaibiaodayizhongqinqie、qinnideyiwei。luxunxie《lun“tamade”》,jieweichushuodaozhongguofuzijian,yi“tamade”yiwei“qinaide”,zhengyucileitong。congzhoujianrendexushuqingkuangkan,zhoufuqingdangshideyisi,yeshiruci。buguo,zheizhongwanxiao、xixuedebiaoda,tongchangxuyaoyidingdetiaojianheqianti,jishuangfangzhijianyaoyoujibenyouhaodejichuhemoqi,fouze,jirongyizishengeyi,zitaomeiqu,chanshengduili。zhoufuqingxianranhulvele,huogenbenjiubuqingchutapingshizaiersunbeixinzhongliuxialezenyangdeyinxiang,maomaoranchongkouerchu,ziyiweishishanyideqinre,jieguoquezhaozhi“henhendepieshi”。

鲁迅手抄祖父周福清诗集《桐华阁诗抄》。鲁迅当时十七岁。

luxunyuzufudeguanxi,haikeyicongliangfuwanlianzhongkanchuduanni。

yabo88登录 yifushizhoufuqingxiejizijidezhangzi,yejiushiluxundefuqinzhouboyide,xiedeshi:

世间最苦孤儿,谁料你遽抛妻孥,顿成大觉

地下若逢尔母,为道我不能教养,深负遗言

duiciwanlian,luxundezushuzhouguanwuzaiqisuozhu《luxunjiatingjiazuhedangnianshaoxingminsu》shuzhong,youyijuhuashuo:

他的孙儿对这挽联深致不满,意谓:“人已死了,还不饶恕吗!”

“raoshu”erzi,yinggaishiduiwanlianzhongde“bunengjiaoyang”suoshuo。erwanlianzhongde“bunengjiaoyang”,zehenyoukenengshianzhi、zhenduizhouboyimeiyoukaoqujurenheshengbinghouxishiyapianzhisieryan。

zhouguanwumeiyoushuoshinaweisuner,danzailuxunxiongdisanrenzhong,youkenengshuochuzheifanyuanyande,shouxianyaoxiangdaoluxun(yuqiyezuixiang)。

lingyifuwanlianshizhoufuqingxiejitazijide,neirongshi:

死若有知,地下相逢多骨肉

生原无补,世间何时立纲常

yabo88登录 duizufuyixiangmeishenmejiedidezhoujianren,zaizufudesangshibanwanhoucaifaxianzheifuwanlian,tanachuzheifutajuedezixiedehenhaodewanlianjidagekan,bingshuo,“kexiwozaomeiyoukandao,burandehua,zaisangshizhongkeyizailingtangliguayigua。”luxundehuidaqueshi:“zheishizaimaren。”

yabo88登录 xikanyixiazhoufuqingdezheifuziwanlian,qizhuyaohanyi,yuqishuoshizaimaren,wurushuoshizishang,dangranqizhongkendingyouxiexufenjideqingxu,luxunqueyiyankanchushizaimaren,erqiehaoxiangzhiyoumaren,zheibunengbushuoyoumouzhongxianruzhijianzaiqizuoyong。suoyi,yixiangchongbaidagedezhoujianren,zheihuimeiyouwanquanjieshoudagedequanweijieshi,“wotingledagedejieshi,juedeyoudaoli,keshiyoujuedewomenyexumeiyouzhenzhengnongdongtadeyisi”,zheishijishiduiluxunsuozuojieshideweiwanyiyi。

luxunduiqizufusuozuodezuichurenyiliao,yeyoudianhairentingwendejudong,shibazhoufuqingjianchixielejishinianderijifuzhiyiju!

yabo88登录 zhoujianrendeshuzhong,youyiduanshengdongerchuanshendejishu:

烧到我祖父的日记时,我有点犹豫了。

我没有看过祖父的日记,他写了些什么,我一点也不知道,只看到是用红条十行纸写的,线装得很好,放在地上,有桌子般高的两大叠,字迹娟秀。

我问大哥:“这日记也烧掉吗?”

他说:“是的。”他问我:“你看过吗?”

“我还没有来得及看。”我回答。

“我这次来翻了翻,好像没有多大意思,写了买姨太太呀,姨太太之间吵架呀,有什么意思?”

我想总不会都写姨太太吧,想起祖父临终前发高烧的时候,还在记日记,就告诉大哥说:“他一直记到临终前一天。”

“东西太多,带不走,还是烧了吧!”

这两大叠日记本,足足烧了两天。

zhoujianrenduiyutadage,zongshichongjingerwenshunde,jishiyousuobuman,zuiduoyezhishimomowuyaneryi。shangshuzheiduanyinhanbulu、jiweijianlvedewenzi,qishiyijingfanyingchuxiongdierrenduiyuzufuqinggandemingxianchayi。

buguanzenmeshuo,zhoufuqingbijingshidianguohanlinderen,tasuozaoyude“kechanghuiluan”,yehenyoukenengzaitaderijizhongyousuojiluhefanying。wulunruhe,zhoufuqingjizaileshushinianderiji,zhishaoshiyifenwanqingshiqideshirensirenshi。suiranjinrenduiyuzhoufuqingdexingqu,hendachengdushangyuanyuduiyuluxundexingqu(danbiewangle,zhishaohaiyouyigezhouzuoren),raner,qiaqiashiluxun,babenlaiduiyutahetadejiazurenshiyouguandeyifenbeijingcailiao,fenshaoyikong。

luxunfenshaozufuriji,zaiqijujiabeiqianzhishi,ji1919nianniandi。zheicifenshaoshijian,shifougen《xinqingnian》he“wusiyundong”youguanni?

yabo88登录 luxunduiyuqizufuzhoufuqingdezheizhongshuli、fanganhepaichi,zaitaliangzuihouyicijianmianshi,yeqingxidifanyingchulai。rengshizhouguanwusuozhu《luxunjiatingjiazuhedangnianshaoxingminsu》shuzhong,《wodezayi》yiduan,youruxiayiduanwenzi:

年纪大的人感到他(指鲁迅)脾气古怪,很讨厌他,他对老的人更加讨厌,不愿和他们见面,甚至自己的祖父也是如此。有一天我们几个年轻人在他父亲房里,鲁迅从日本放假回来陪我们很欢乐的谈话,他还拿出一瓶“味の素”(即味精)倒一点冲开水叫大家尝尝,又拿香烟和麦尔登糖出来,分给大家吃。这时他祖父唤他:“阿樟”,他赶紧出去,祖父问他:“阿樟,日本人的社会情况怎么样?和中国比较怎样?”鲁迅回答四个字:“没有什么!”马上转头就走了。

yabo88登录 zheishiluxungenzhoufuqingdezuihouyicijianmian,neishizhoufuqingyishitaimenliyiweifeichangjimodelaoren,diernian,zhoufuqingjiuqushile。dangshiluxunyiconghongyabo88dengluyuanbiye,zhunbeiqianwangxiantaiyizhuanjiudu,qijianzhengzaibanlixiangguanruxueshouxu,luxunmeiyouhuiguoweizufubensang。

sanshinianhou,ribenqingnianzengtianshegenluxunxuexizhongguoxiaoshuoshi,zaixianliaozhong,zengtianshefaxianleluxunduiqizufudemouzhongganqingqingxiang:

鲁迅说过,他做小孩子的时候,因为读书不太用功,曾受到祖父的斥责。但是,他又说,因为读《西游记》,开始觉得书本有趣,所以读起书来。他还说,祖父由进士而成为翰林是经过国家最高级考试的,大概可说是有学问的人吧。他是受过这样的祖父的许多责备的,但是后来他作了教育部的官员,有机会看见部里保管的从前进士的试卷,他从其中发现祖父的文章而把它读了,而那文章并不高明。听了这话,我感觉到那是小孩时受严厉斥责对于祖父的报复口吻。这儿,也可以看到他那种不服输的性格。(增田涉《鲁迅的印象·苏曼殊是鲁迅的朋友》)

zengtianshesuoshuoluxunkandaozufujinshideshijuan,zhideshizhoufuqingdianshishidecelun,shixushoushangzaigongzuoshifaxiande,dangshide《luxunriji》liyoujizai:

季巿搜清殿试策,得先祖父卷,见归。(《鲁迅日记》1912年9月21日)

luxunshuodaozufuzhoufuqingshi,dangshishiyifushenmeyangdeshenqing,rangzengtianshezheiweiribenqingnian,jingrancongzhongduchule“baofu”deganjue?

yabo88登录 ruguobijiaoyixialuxunsanxiongdiduiyuzufuzhoufuqingdetaidu,womenhuifaxian,zhouzuorenxiangbiyuluxun,xianranyaopingheyixie。zhoufuqingzaihangzhouzuolao,benlaiyizhipeibantadeyouzibosheng(yuluxuntongnianershaoxiaodeshufu),qunanjingshuishixuetangdushule,yushizhoufuqingrangzhouzuorendingtiboshengdaohangzhouqupeita。houlaizai《zhitanghuixianglu》zhong,zhouzuorenshuo:

祖父虽然在最初的风暴里(指周福清在鲁迅曾祖母的丧事中的粗暴表现)显得很可怕,但是我在他身边的一年有半,却还并不怎样,……却并不对于我生气,所以容易应付。……总之我在他旁边过来的一年半的日子,实在要算平稳的,觉得别无什么要诉说的事。

zhoufuqingduizhouzuorensuozuodezuiweikekedeshi,shijiaotaqucaishichangmaidoufushi,yebixudechuanshangzhangshan。zheirangzhouzuorenhenshoubule,shitachanshengletuotaojiating,qianwangnanjingdushudeniantou。(《zhitanghuixianglu·tuotao》)

yabo88登录 zhoufuqingqushishi,zhouzuorenganghaocongnanjingxuetanghuijia。yushi,tabiandingtidageluxunzuoweichengzhongsun(zhouzuorencaixiang,yinweixiaoshuboshengshishuchu,suoyi,sangyiyouchengzhongsunlaichumian)。zhouzuorenbixia,duiyujiazulidezhongduorenshi,jieyouzangfoubaobian,danduiyuzufudexushu、pingyishangsuangongyunchizhong,shuobushangyouduoshaohaogan,danyemeiyouluxundejiliezitaihejudong。

yabo88登录 yexuzhenshiyueyoucaihuayuenanxiangchu,luxunxiongdisanrenzhong,zhoujianrenduiyuzufudetaiduzuiweizhengmian。zhoujianrenyeshixiongdisanrenzhong,yuzufuxiangchushijianzuijiudeyige。taduizufudejiyihemiaoshu,jihuwanquanshizhengmianhewenxinde,zhidaowannian,zhoujianrenrengranchengzufushi“cixiangerkeaidelaoren”。《luxungujiadebailuo》yishuzhong,rangrennanwangdexijiezhiyi,shizhoufuqinggulizhoujianrenwanfengzheng,bingqinzi“xigun”jizhoujianrenkan(shizhoufuqingyinianyuhuajia),meiyouyisiyihaosuoweidajiazhangdeweiyanheguban,wanquanshiyifugudianzhongguodezusunyiletu。

zuimingxiandechayishi,zufuzhoufuqingjihucongweizailuxunbixiachuxian,zaizhouzuorenhezhoujianrendebixia,zufuqueshiyigeyouxueyourou、shengdongfengfudexingxiang。

neime,luxunhezufuzhoufuqingzhijian,duoshaodaiyou“diyi”dezhuangtai,yuanyinshishenmeni?

zhoujianrenzaitadewenzhangli,duiluxunheyigenzufuguanxibuhao,zuolejidianfenxi。

tarenweishouxianshisixiangdechayi。

luxunyuqizufusixiangdechayi,shizibudaiyandeshi。sixiangdechayi,dangranyoukenengzaochengguanxidegemoheshuyuan,danquebubiranzaochengganqingdeduilihediyi。luxunqunanjingxuetangdushu,shikaoleshuzuzhouqingfandeguanxi,danzheiweishuzu,queshiyiweisixiangpoweiluohou——juzhouzuorenhoulaidejishu,cirendaodehaoxiangyeyouwenti——derenshi。zhengshizheiweishuzu,bangluxungaimingweizhoushuren,mingzigaidebucuo,dangaimingdeliyou,queyouxiekexiao,tarenweijinyangxuetangbushijianguangcaideshi,buyiyongzupushangdezhengshimingzi。houlai,zheiweishuzuyinweiluxunaikanweixinpaideshuji,danxinluxunsixiangchuwenti,jiuyaoluxunchaoxieshoujiudachenxuyingkui(xuguangpingzufu)dezouzhang。danluxunduizheiweishuzu,suicengyouguoweici,ganqingshangquesihumeiyoushenmediyi。

xiangbiyushuzuzhouqingfan,luxunzijidezufuzhoufuqingzaisixiangshangdaoyaosuanshikaiminghexianjinde,dangran,qizhongguoshidedongxiyebushao,youqishixiaodao。

yabo88登录 luxunyuzufudesixiangchayi,yexukendingzailiangrendeguanxizhong,qilezuoyong,danzheizhongzuoyongdechengdu,buyingbeiguofenxiangxianghekuada。

zhoujianrensuoshuodediergeyuanyin,shizufudehaomaren。“zufujixihuanmaren,……luxuntingleyebudashufu,zheixieyejiushibudaxihuanzufudeyuanyindeyibufen。”zheishiyigehenxianshi、yehenzhijiedeyuanyin,buguanniyouzenyangdediweihegaojian,ruguomeitianzongshidiediebuxiuyimarendefangshilaichuandaoshijiao,neirenherendouzhiyouwangershengwei、tuibisanshe,naizhixinhuaiyuanhen。

zhoujianrensuoshuodedisangeyuanyin,tingshangquyoudiantebie:naqie。jushuozhoufuqingqianhouyouguosanfangqieshi。zhoufuqing1894nianhuijia,youdaihuiyiweiyuqixiaonvnianlingxiangruodepanshi。luxunweiheduizufudenaqietebiefangan,zheiduoshaoyoudianrangrenhaoqi(yexugentaduijiangshizumudeganqingyouguan)。fenshaozufurijishi,luxunjiutebieqiangdiaoleyitaitai。luxunrihousuoxiezawenjiqitazuopinzhong,youduochugongjizhongguonanrennaqiedewenzi,jirenyinxiangshenke。zheilitebiezhideyitideshi,luxunduiyuzufudaihuilaideqieshipanshi,xiangduiqizufuyiyang,congweizaibixia,naizhikoutoutidaoguo,danzaizhouzuorenhezhoujianrendeshuzhong,duipanshiqueliuxialepoweixizhiershengdongdexushu,bingbeisuzaoweiyizhongzhidetongqingdexingxiang。zhouzuorenzaishushinianhouhaijitaxieguojixingshi,zhoujianrenzeshizhongzunjingdichengtawei“pan(pan)shuzumu”。sanxiongdiweiyideshufubosheng,shizhoufuqinglingyiweihubeijiqieshisuosheng,zaizhouzuorenhezhoujianrendebixia,buyueertongdichengxianweiyiweifengliutitang、feichangxianliang、feichangcongming、jiyoumeiliderenwu,tadeshenshihejuzhi,hennanrangrenbuweizhixinshenggankai。zhouzuorenhezhoujianren,dougenzheiweinianlingxiangjindexiaoshu,jianlilezhenzhidechaoyueyibanshuzhiguanxideqingyi,bingzaiqisuozhuzhongqingxiliulu。erluxunduiyuzheiweixiaoshu,qijinweizhiliuxiadequanbubiji,shi《luxunriji》lidesanjuhua——qianliangcishi“deshengshuxin,jiujiangfa”,zuihouyicishi“sandilaixin,yanshengshumoyunanjing。”haiyoujiushizaidezhizhouboshengsixunhou,《zhixushoushang》(1918nian3yue10ri)shuxinlidejiju:

家叔(案即周伯升)旷达,自由行动数十年而逝,仆殊羡其福气。至于善后,则殆无从措手。既须谋食,更不遐清理纠葛,徜复纷纭,会当牺牲老屋,率眷属拱手让之耳。(后面几句,我不敢十分肯定是否与周伯升之死有关)

gentaliangweixiongdixiangbi,luxunduixiaoshuboshengdetaidu,hennanshuobugenluxunduiyuzufunaqiedexinliyouguan。

chucizhiwai,luxungenzufuzhijiandeqingganzhuangtai,chengxianchufumianxingdeyimian,shifouhaigenqitayouguanni?

科场案

youyuzufufanxiadekechanghuiluan,jiluxunzhenggejiating,naizhijiazudailaideyingxiang,yishiyijianguangweirenzhideshi,zheishiluxunzhisuoyichengweiluxundeyigeguanjianhezhongyaoyuanyin,erqieshiyuantouxingdeyuanyin。duiyuzheijianshiqing,dangshirenhehoulairen,jibenchileyizhongdazhixiangjindekanfa。huarenxuezhefangzhaoyingxianshengcengzaiyipianwenzhangzhongshuo:“suoyizhoufuqingtuhuikaoguan,haobuzuguai,fanershipoanerqiezhongfacaikeguai。”(《guanyuzhoufuqingdeshiliao》,yuanzai1957nian12yue31ritaiwanchubande《daluzazhi》,zhuanjianyu《luxunyanjiuziliao》7),zheiqishijibenfanyingleyizhonglilaidegonglun。zhoufuqingcongfanandaoanfa,conglishiqingjingdejiaodukan,gengxiangshiyizhuang“jiguchuanhua”youxiheeluosilunpandudejieguo。ranersuishuoruci,zuoweiyushiwushedepangguanzhe,rongyichikeguan、pingyunzhilun,biaoyitongqingxin,danzuoweianjianlihaizhijiexiangguanren,youqishiduinianfangqingshao、zhengzhiminganzhishideluxunlaishuo,cishisuodailaidechongjiheyingxiang,jiuzhenshibuzuweitarendaoye!zheiyegenluxundegexingjinmixianglian,gongtongzuoyong。zhouzuorencengzaiwenzhongshuo:“woyinweinianjibugou,bucengganjuezheshenme,luxunzebumianhenshoudaoxieciji,jutahoulaishuo:cengzaineilibeirenchengzuo‘taofan’,jishishuoqigai。……zheigecijideyingxianghenbuqing。”(《luxundeqingnianshidai·binan》)

zhouranzaoyujiatingbianguderenhenduo,danzaochengluxunshixiaoguode,quehenhanjian。yexuluxunzaipingjing、lixingdexinqingxia,yenengdadaoxiangyibanrenduiyuzufudelijiehetongqing,dancishijitagerendailaidecijiheshangtong(luxunfuqindesi,yeyuciyouguan),queshizhangjiunanyimipingde。zhoufuqingyinweizheijianshiqing,buxingchengweizhoushijiazushishangdeliangwudihetangxuanzong,suoweichengbaijieyouyiren。yishiderongyao,jiruodadejiatingdailaihengjiudechuangtonghehuimie。suoyijiarushuocishizailuxunyuzufuzhijian,kexialeshenmeyinyindeliehen,neibingbushiyijiannanyilijiedeshi。

yabo88登录 ruguohaiyaozailuxunyuqizufudeduilizhijian,xunzhaoqitayuanyindehua,wolianxiangdaode,shiguxilashirenhexiedesuozhu《shenpu》zhong,xiedaodekeluonuosiyuzhousideshifugushi,yijimeiguoxuezhehaluode·bulumu《yingxiangdejiaolv》suochanfadelilun。zailuxundejiazuzhong,weiyinengduirihouchengweiyidaiwenhaodeluxungouchengchaoyuexingzhangaide,wuyijiushihanlinzufuzhoufuqingle。hanlin,zaimanzhangdekejushidai,jihushiwenrenxueshisuonengdadaodeshuyuguanfangtizhineidedianfeng。dangran,bixutebieshuomingdeshi,zheigesuoweideyuanyin,xianranbujuyoutaichongfendedulixinghexianhuoxing,tajiuxiang“shafuqumu”deyinyuyiyangyouweinanyan,xuyaogenqitayinsujiehezaiyiqi,cainengxunmidaotadezongying。

鲁迅手抄《恒训》,此为周福清治家格言集

zhengruluxunshenshangzhongduoshiqingdouyouliangmianxingyiyang,luxunyuzufuzhoufuqingdeguanxi,yekendingbuzhizhiyouduilideyimian。shishishang,luxunyuzufudeguanxi,miqieerfuza,qieyingxiangshenyuan,cengyouyiweixuerenshuoguo:

完全可以说,周福清是整个周氏家族中,特别是直系亲属中,给予鲁迅影响最大最多的一个人。

neime,zhoufuqingduiyuluxunyouguozenyangdeyingxiang?

yabo88登录 luxunzainanjingdushuqijian,cengjingshouchaoguozufudeshizuo《tonghuageshichao》heshuyujiaxunxingzhide《hengxun》。zheiqizhongfashenglezenyangdeyingxiang,shiyigeweimiao、dankendingcunzaideshishi。biedebushuo,jin《hengxun》zhongsuojiliqiangdiaodeshijihewushiqingxiang,zailuxunshenshangjiuyouxianzhudecunzaihebiaoxian。

wuxunianjian,zhoufuqingzaihangzhoujianyuzhong,jileyiben《tangsongshichun》huijiajisunbeiyuedu,bingzaishuzhongjialeyizhangzhitiao,shangmianxiezhe:

初学先诵白居易诗,取其明白易晓,味淡而永;再诵陆游诗,志高词壮,且多越事;再诵苏诗,笔力雄健,辞足达意;再诵李白诗,思致清逸,如杜之艰深,韩之奇崛,不能学亦不必学也。示樟寿诸孙。

yabo88登录 zheishiyiduanxiangdangbucuodejianmingshihua,jianjieermingque,shiyiweihanlindeshuizhun,fanyingchushenbaozhenzaicanhetadezoushuzhongsuoshuode“wenlishangyou”detedian。suiranyurihouluxundeshigelinianbujinwenhe,danruguoshuotaduishaonianluxundeshigesiweichanshengguomouzhongyingxiang,yinggaibushitailipudexiangxiang。

danzheixie,zhinengsuanshiputongyibandeguanxicailiao,zhenzhengzhidezhuyideshi,zhoujianrencengzaiwenzhangzhongzheiyangshuo:

然而他(鲁迅)的性情,有些地方,还是很像祖父的。……这种心情,与祖父有些相像的。(《鲁迅去世已经十年了》)

yabo88登录 luxunyuzhoufuqingzhijian,younaxiexiangxiangni?

yabo88登录 shouxian,zuirongyixiangdaode,shimaren。zheiyeshizufurangluxunfangandedifangzhiyi,qianmianjigeliziyinengshuoming。zhoufuqingdemaren,juebujinjinxianyuzaizijiataimenliyangwei,tashiliancixi、guangxu,douhaobu“bihui”ditongmawei“huntaihou”“daihuangdi”。kezhidangnianzhangtaiyande“zaitianxiaochou”,wuzhihuizaidongjingde“malaotaipo”zhilei,xunfeigujunfenzhan。

ma,xianzaijihuchengleluxundebiaoqianzhiyi。

luxunyuzufuzhoufuqingxiangxiangdediergefangmian,yaoshudaoganzuoganweidefankangjingshen。guanyuluxunzheifangmiandexushu,yijinggouduole,duizhoufuqingdezheiyimian,zhizhizheyaoshaodeduo。zhoufuqingzaijiangxijinxirenzhixian,budangendingtoushangsizhifuguanxigaobuhao,shenzhigenjiangxixunfuyebuduifu,zheiyexujiushishenbaozhenzouzhezhongsuoshuo“banshimanhan”deyibufen。houlaizaihangzhoujianyuzuolao,shoudaoyuzulesuo,zhoufuqingerhuabushuo,caoqiyigenmenshuan,mantangzhuizhu、tongzoulesuodeyuzu,rangrenbuyouxiangqiluxundeyijumingyan:“jiaorenshenwang”!

yuyankebo,suandeshangzhoufuqing、luxunzusunerrendelingyixianggongtongdian。shuoqiluxunyuyandekebo,wolimahuixiangdaogujiegangxiansheng。erzhoufuqingdeyuyankebo,jiduanxingdibiaoxianzaitachengzijidejishifuren,luxundejiangshizumuwei“zhangmaosaosao”!yuanyinshitaipingtianguozhanluanqijian,jiangshicengshisanyutaipingjunzhong,zhoushisuiyiweitazhenjiebubao,guchuciqiyu。

luxunkebozhishijijinkebo,suihezhichu,youkairansuihe,zuirangrennanwangde,moguoyuweifengshengsanxiupixiedeqiwenyishile(zheijianshidezhenshixingpoyourencunyi,danwoxiang,ruguoshizhende,daoyefuheluxunsuoshuodemouzhongweijinfengdu)。ernaizuyeyouzheidengyirenzhiju。zhouguanwu《luxunjiatingjiazuhedangnianshaoxingminsu》zhongjiangshuguoyigegushi,shuozhoufuqingzaijinxizuozhixianshi,yougenvyongshizitacongxiaojiuguyongde,yedaidaojinxirenshang,bangzhoufuqingzuofan。zhoufuqingrumingwei“fu”,laonvyongjiuchenghuzhoufuqingwei“fuguan”,daolechifanshijie,buguansanqiershiyi,nvyongpaojinzhoufuqingdezhixian“qianyafang”(bangongchangsuo),zongshidajiaoyisheng:“fuguanchifanzhe”,“shaoweichiyan,haiyaozailaiyisheng‘haozao’(shaoyan:zuo‘gankuai’jie),tayebuyiweiwu”。

zhoufuqingshenweihanlin,luxunchengmingzhihou,shizhongshiputongrendexintaiyuxiguan,haowuzuozuozhuangyangziyuduanjiazideesuxiqi,rangrenyinxiangyoushen。

yabo88登录 zhouguanwuzaishushuo:“jiefugong(zhoufuqing)jingchangjuyouyifushenshengbukeqinfandezitai,meihetajiejinguode,zongbumianwangershengwei,shizaitaqueshiseyanerbuli。”

luxuncengzaijimuqindexinzhongzheiyangzishu:“ta(haiying)zhipananyigeren,danyoushuo,nandaqilai,shengyinsuiranxiang,quebutongde。”(《luxunshuxin·zhimuqin》1936nian1yue8ri)

yabo88登录 budongcichuzhe,buzuyuyanluxun。

luxunyuzhoufuqingduisiwangyishidetanrantaiduheyizhuzhongdewushigaojie,yekeyishuoshiyimaixiangchengde。

youyisideshi,luxunyuqizufuxiangsidetezheng,yiducengweihushisuobuzhuo:

去看启明,久谈,在他家吃饭;饭后,豫才回来,又久谈。周氏弟兄最可爱,他们的天才都很高。豫才兼有赏鉴力与创作力,而启明的赏鉴力虽佳,创作较少。启明说,他的祖父是一个翰林,滑稽似豫才。一日,他谈及一个忘恩的朋友,说他死后忽然梦中来见,身穿大毛的皮外套,对他说:“今生不能报答你了,只好来生再图报答。”他接着谈下去:“我自从那回梦中见他以后,每回吃肉,总有点疑心。”这种滑稽,确有点像豫才。(胡适1922年8月11日《日记》)

yabo88登录 “huajisiyucai”,zheijuhuaqishishibukeyiqingyifangguode。

luxunyuzhoufuqingdexiangsizhichu,haiyouyidian,yerongyirangrenchanshenglianxiang,zheijiushitamenduiyuzijiqishideqiyitaidu。zhoufuqingduiyujishifurenjiangshi,sihuyizhidoubutaihao,taipingjunzhishikongpazhishiyuanyinzhiyi,huogancuijiushijiekou。juzhouguanwushuzhongshuo,zhoufuqingzaijinxirenzhixian,jiangshiyesuitongzairen,youyihuiquefashenglesuowei“tingchuangshijian”,bingqiecongciyihou,“jiefugonghejianglaotaitaideeganyushen,yizhizhongqishenerbujiaotan”。

zhouzuorenzai《luxunxiaoshuoliderenwu》yishu,yeyouyijiexiedaojiangshizumudeshi:

但是造成祖母的不幸生活的还有一个原因,……这即她的被遗弃。……她的生活是很有光荣的,她是“翰林太太”,也到知县衙门去上任过,可是后来遗弃在家,介孚公做着京官,前后蓄妾好些人,末后带了回去,终年的咒骂欺凌她,真是不可忍受的。(《鲁迅小说里的人物》,121页)

yabo88登录 luxunhezhuanhunyindezuidatezhengzhiyi,yeshimeiyouhuashuo,yizhiyuzhuanbaoyuanshuo:“laotaitaixianwomeiyouerzi,daxianshengzhongnianbutongwojianghua,zenmehuishengerzini?”

zheiliyaobuchongshuoyixia,zhoufuqingduiyujiangshifurendeyiqi,henyoukenengshiluxunduizufufangan,naizhiduiliqingxudeyixiangzhuyaoyuanyin,zheiyiyuanyinshiyufanduinaqiehuweibiaolide。luxunduiyujiangshizumudeganqing,keyicongxiaoshuo《guduzhe》dedaozhengshi。guanyuzheipianxiaoshuodezhenshibeijing,kecankanzhouzuoren《luxunxiaoshuoliderenwu》zhong,《guduzhe》he《zumu》liangjie。ranerrangrengantandeshi,luxunzijihoulaizaihunyinshangdemingyun,jingranyouxiezhongyanlezufudegushi。

zhoufuqingheluxuncongbenzhishangshuo,doushineizhongjizhongguijuhelinianderen,tamenyefeichangzhizheyuzijidelinianheguiju,ranertaliangyoudoushineizhonghuizaituranzhiji,dapolinianheguijuderen。zheizhongzhizheyupohuaideturanzhuanhuan,xingchenglezhoujiazusunerrenshenshangteyoudemouzhongzhangli。

zaizheizhongduiyulinianheguijukanzhongzhizhedebeihou,shiyizhongzhunqingjiaoxingzhidedongxi。zhoufuqingduiyudaode,xianranyouyizhongjishizaitaimenrenshikanlai,yeyijingguoshideshouwei,zuituchudelizi,moguoyu“pansidong”degushile。zhoufuqingduiyuzizhibeichouyan、hejiudetonghenyugaojie,chuquxianshiyuanyinwai,duoshaodouhanyoudaodedeyinsuzaiqizhong,dangran,daodeyuxianshibenshenzaiciyebingbuwanquankefen。luxunduiyudaode,jirengengduo、gengqiangliedeyinxiang,sihuzaiyuchongpojiudedaodeshang,qishizheirengranshiyidaodeweizhouxindefanxiangyundong,yizhongfanxiangzheshe,qibeihou,zhengshiyaoshulixindaodedejingshenyunuli。zusunerrensuiransuoweihuyupohuaidedaodeneirong,huoxushizhengxiangfan,danqibiaoxianjingshenzhineizaijiegouyulidu,queshiyizhide,xiangside。

shuodaozhoushijiazudedaodehuati,yexubuyinggaihulveyigemingzi:zhoudunyi。nianshaodeluxuncengyoushijuyue:“haoxianglianxichengjingzhi,mosuicanyeduohantang!”(《lianpengren》,zuoyu1900nian),lianxijizhoudunyi。zhoufuqingheluxunshenshangneizhongjinhuyanlidefanduoluoqingxiang,genyuanzhiyi,huojizaici。

ruguowomenxiangzhiqianbijiaoluxunsanxiongdiyuzufudeqingganguanxiyiyang,zailaizuoyifanbijiao,womenhuihenrongyifaxian,xiongdisanrenzhong,weiluxunyuzufuzhoufuqingzuiweixiangxiang,zaizhouzuorenhezhoujianrenshenshang,zhaobuchuxiangluxunyuzufuruciduodexiangsizhichu,youqishizaiyixiezuyibiaoxianchuyigerendezhuyaotezhengdedifang,jishiyou,yeshiyinquantong,buxiangluxunyuzufuzhijianjuyouneizhongyiyanjikebianshidemingxiantezheng。

neime,zheifenxiangxiangshizenmelaide?

yaoshuoqingchulianggerendexiangxiangyuanyin,bushiyijianrongyideshi。buguo,zaicizhiqian,xiandeshuomingjieshiyixia,suoweilianggerendexiangxiang,juebushishuoxiangyigerenzhanzaijingzimianqianneiyang。lianggerendexiangxiang,zhideshiqiyouxiangxiangzhichu,danbuguannengzhaochuduoshaoxiangxiangzhichu,liangrenshenshangdechayi,kendingyaodayutamendexiangxiang。yinci,suoweixiangxiangyicisuobiaodade,bingbushi“yigemozidaochulai”deyisi。

yabo88登录 yaotanxunzhoufuqingheluxunerren,zhisuoyiyouzhuduokanshangquxiangxiangdeyuanyin,chulesuyusuowei“gedaiyichuan”zhiwai,——dantongweigedaizusun,zhouzuorenyuzhoujianrenshenshang,heyixiangxiangzhichuyuanbujiluxun?——womenshouxianyaozhuyidao,tamenliangrenzaijiatinghejiazuzhongdeweizhi,jizhangzidiwei。zhoufuqingshitafuqinlingniangongdeweiyinansi,suowei“duzi”(zhoujianren《luxungujiadebailuo》,di30ye),erlingniangongbenshenyoushizhangzi(tongshang,di31ye),yinci,zhoufuqingzaizhoushitaimenli,“ta(zhoufuqing)beifengao,nianjilao,zaibentaimenjishibenjiahezhudedizhailiyaosuanshizuizhangbeile。”(《zhitanghuixianglu·zufuzhisang》)

erluxun“shizhifangpaixiadezhangzizhangsun”(zhoujianren《luxungujiadebailuo》,di56ye)。zhoufuqingyishengyuyouerzi,zhangzijiluxundefuqinzhouboyi,cizijiyuluxuntongniandebosheng。zhouboyiyuyousizi,chunshouzaoyao,luxunweizhangzi。

zaiyijiazuweizhuyaoshengchan、shenghuodanweideniandai,youqishizaiyoudizhangzichuantongdehanzushehuili,zhangziwulunzaixianshicengmianhaishijingshencengmian,douzhanjuzheteshudeweizhi。zheizhongdiweishangdenanzi,tongchanghuiyouyizhonggengqiangliededaodeyishihexianshichengdan。zheiyidian,zaizhoufuqingheluxunzusunerrenshenshang,youqishiluxunshenshang,youlingrennanwangdeyinxiang。badaowandeshenghuoshi,jiushiyigeyoulidezhengming。

raner,zhangzixintai,congmouzhongjiaodushuo,zhishiyigejichuheqianti,tahaixuyuxianshihezhenshiderengejiehe,caihuichanshengyoushijiyiyidejieguo。neime,zaizhoufuqingheluxunshenshang,nengkandaoyizhongshenmeyangderengetezheng,zuyishierrenchanshengweitarensuomeiyoudexiangsixing?zheijiushiliangrengongyoudeqiangliejiwangxin。zhoufuqingheluxun,doushuyuneizhongduiziji,yeduitarenyouzheqiangliejiwangxinderenwu。zheiyidian,genzhangzidiweiyeshixiangguanliande。zhoujianrenshuzhong,xiezhoufuqingcongbeijinghuidaoshaoxingtaimenhou,chibajiaotongchuizaitingyuanzhongzhuidachenniyuyapianhejiujingzhongdezhizisiqi,zhoujianrenfenxidao:

但我祖父独独对四七特别痛恨,想必因为他当年带四七去过江西,期望越高,失望也更深的缘故吧!(周建人《鲁迅故家的败落》)

luxunzeyinweiyishudeyuangu,cengjingduizhouzuorenhuiyilaoquan。

大概我那时候很是懒惰,住在伍舍里与鲁迅两个人,白天逼在一间六席的房子里,气闷得很,不想做工作,因此与鲁迅起过冲突,他老催促我译书,我却只是沉默的消极对付,有一天他忽然愤激起来,挥起他的老拳,在我头上打了几下,便由许季茀赶来拉开了。(《知堂回想录》(上),《邬波尼沙陀》,安徽教育出版社,第154页)

luxunzai《fen·xiezai〈fen〉houmian》zhong,tanchengzijixingge“shierhenjunji”。weihejunji?qizhongzhiyi,jiushijiwangxintaizhong,jiwangtaishen。tabujinduizhouzuorenzheiyang,duiziji,shenzhiduizijishenchudezheigeminzu,yeshizheiyang。

jiuxiangzhoufuqinghuiwubajiaotongchuizhuidasiqi。

(本文摘自黄坚著《桃花树下的鲁迅》)