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辛格的爱尔兰民族志书写
来源:中国社会科学网 | 张呈敏  2020年10月21日08:41

yuehan·milindun·xinge(john millington synge)yiqiduiaierlanxibudefaxianyushuxie,zai19shijimo20shijichudeaierlanwenyifuxingyundongzhongdafangyicai。1896nianyoudangyufaguoyishuquanzhongdexingezaibaliyudaoyezhi,yezhiminruidibuzhuodaoxingedechuangzuotianfuyucaihua,yushiquanshuoxingedaoaierlanxibudealunqundaoqutiyanshenghuo,zheicitiyandejiejingjiushixingederijitisanwen——《alundao》。《alundao》bujinshixingexijudechuangzuolaiyuan,gengshiyibushuxieaierlanminzuzhidejiezuo。zai《alundao》zhong,xingeyilangmanzhuyidesixiangpuxiduialundaobianzhiqiminzushenhuadeyuyan,qiminzuhuayuqianghualealundaozuoweiminzuyuyanyuwenhuayichandidexiangzhengfuhao。

对阿伦岛隐喻的强化

yabo88登录 shishishang,zhidao17、18shijirenmendouduialundaozhizhishenshao,19shijichualundaocaiyinglaidiyipizaofangdeguwuyanjiuzhuanjia。ranerdaole19shijixiabanye,alunqundaoyinqikaoguyuwenhuajiazhi——langmanfengjing、gulaoyiji、shiqianwenming、fengsuchuantongxiyinzhekaoguxuejia、yabo88denglu、yishujia、minsuxuejiadengbutonglingyudezhuanjiatanfang。zaizheixiexuezhedeyanzhong,alundaobaoliudefeixuyuyiji——canquedeshengjing、gulaodejunshidiyunongshe,wubuxiangzhengzheweibeixiandaiyingguowenhuawurandeshengdi,shitamenchiyouyizhongduiweibeizhengfudekaierterendeyanxugan。1893niangaierlianmeng(the gaelic league)chenglihou,quelile“baohuaierlankouyu,guliaierlanyurichangshiyong,chuangzuozhenzhengdeaierlanminzuyabo88denglu”demubiao,zheishidealundaodexiangzhengyiyijinyibutuxian。yinweizuoweigaieryuguangduyuchunjieduzuigaodediqu,alundaochongdangleaierlandeyinyugongneng,tabiaozhizheaierlanzuoweiyigebukefengedezhengti,baochizhechuantongdeyuyanyuwenhua,aierlanminzuyinggaitongguotazhongxinfaxianzijideminzushenfen。zongeryanzhi,alundaobeizhishifenzigoujianchengyigexinbanbendedaoyushenhua,yibianzaijitiyishizhongningjuminzuqinggan。

yabo88登录 xingezai1898—1902nianwucifangwenalundao,yigongdaile18gexingqi,qijiantabujinshidikaochadaominshenghuo、shoujizhengliminjiangushi,erqiedaliangyueduleguanyualundaodexueshuzhushu。1901nianxingecongtazaidaoyusuozuodebijizhongzhenglishaixuanziliao,tongnianwancheng《alundao》。xingedeminzuzhiyabo88dengluzhuceshihuiguxingdegaixieyuzhongzu,zaibianjicailiaodeguochengzhong,tayouyiqiangdiaozijidezhenshitiyanyukeguanshushuo“meiyoubianzaoshenme,yemeiyougaibianrenhebiyaodedongxi”,danqijuyoudejiecengbeijingyuzhiminyishixingtaihuanjingzaiqianyishizhongshentoudaotaduialundaowenhuayushenghuodekanfazhong。xingemaodundiyilaiyutashitudianfudezhengzhihuayu,wuxingzhongjiaqianglealundaodeminzuyinyu。

双重观察视角

zuoweiguanchazhehexushuzhedexingecaiyongjishuliyouqinjindeshuangzhongguanchashijiaolaishenshialundaoshangdefengwuyurenwu。yifangmian,xingede“guankan”sihushichaorandepangguanzhezitai。congxinge1898niandao1902nianzaialundaopaishedezhaopiankeyikanchuzheizhongshuyuan,daominchuxianzaifengjingzhong,yujiaoxiadetuditianrandirongweiyiti,erzuoweisheyingshidexinge,tadeweizhishichaorandeguanchazhe。zheili,zuoweiyuanshidenongminjianyinghezibenzhuyideyingxiangxingchengxianmingduibi,erzheizhongshuliyugehelaiziyuyanyingzaodemoshenggan,dangengduochuyuxingeyishujiaqizhiyuyuanshishenghuodegegeburu。lingyifangmian,geliyumoshengdeshuyuanganposhixingecanyudaodaominhuodongzhong,zaiduidaominde“ningshi”zhong,xingexiwangzijiyechengwei“beiguankan”deyifang,zai“kan”yu“beikan”zhijianwanchengzhutijianxingdehudong。yinci,xingehuaizheqiangliedeyuanwangquqinjindaomin,tazhudongjidaominbiaoyanmoshu,yongsuishenxiedaideqianbaolidezhaopianxiyindaomin,shenzhiyanzouchuantongdexiaotiqinqu,zheiwuyibuyinqidaomindezhuyiyuhaoqi。xingeqipantongguoyudaomindeqinjin“shiyan”laihuanjiewenhuashuli,yinweizhengrutuogefunike(torgovnick)suoshuo:“wulunyuanshirendeyuanshixingcaiquhezhongxingshi,tadeqiyixingdounenghuanjiewomenyuzijihewenhuadegehe,yinwei‘huijiale’,jiuxiang‘zouxiangyuanshi’yiyang,bukebimiandishiduihuiguiyuandiandeyinyu。”

shuangzhongguanchashijiaoyinfaxinlishangdeminganyumaodun,xingejingchangduziyouzouzaidaoyushang,taduifengjingganzhixini,duidaoyudesuoshibaochiminrui,yushizuoweisuizhierlaiderijixushu,yechangchangyouzouyuhuanxiangdebianyuan。zheizhongzhanglishidexingedexushujuyouqiangliedesirenhuayusuipianhuasecai,yizhiyutaduidaomindemiaoshuchangchangshiwuyishidegerenhuaxiangxiang。

“他者”眼中的景观

yabo88登录 zai《alundao》zhong,xingeduidaoyufengwuhedaominjinxinglelangmanhuadejingguanxushu,tazanmeialundaoshiyigefeichangtongyide“xiaowutuobang”。zaidaoshang,jieji、fengongdengshangweichuxian,“zheixierendecongmingcaizhihemeilihendachengdushangshiyouyumeiyourenhefengong”,yongtianrandaoyucailiaozhizuodemeiyijianwupindoubiaominglerenyudaoyuzhijiantianrandeziranlianxi。xingegengshixinshangdaominjiaochuanpampooty(shiyizhongyouweiroudepigezhichengde“mokaxin”fenggedexiezi,xiegenhejiaozhiyoudiaoyushengguding)shizouludewanmeititai,“ouzhoumeiyouchenzhongdexuezi,zheishitamenbaochileyeshengdongwuminjiedexingzoufangshi”。zaixingedexushuzhong,daominyudaoyushenghuodouxianshiweilangmanhuadejingguan,tajiangdaominmiaohuichenggaoguideyemanren,shiheziranlizuodouzhengdeyingxiong,daomindejiannanshenghuozechongmanyuanshideyingxiongzhuyi。

xingezuoweiyigecongbali、lundundengxiandaidoushishenghuozhongtaolichulaideren,dui“jijianzhuyi”dedaoyushenghuotousheleyizhonglangmanhuanxiang,shidedaoyushenghuodaiyouteshudeyuanshimeili。danshiduidaominlaishuo,daoyujiandanshenghuodezhongyaoxingzhuyaozaiyuqigongnengxing。alundaowalijiaotidiaidexuanya、liudongdeshaqiu、luoludeyanshisuoyingzaodecanglianghuanjingyudaominxingchenggongshengguanxi,eliedefengtuyuqihouchengweisuzaotamenjingshendeliliangyuanquan,yeshidetamendeshenghuozhipoerchuantong。xingexiaojieledaominyuhuanjingxingershangdegongshengguanxi,erzhongxinjiangtamenzhiyuyuxiandaishenghuodeduibiguanxizhongyanshuo,zheishidealundaoxianruyuanshiheminzudeyishixingtaili,daominjiankang、huoli、yexingdelunlishenghuoyuxiaofei、xiuxian、fangzongdexiandaidoushishenghuoxingchengxianmingduibi。xingeyuanshizhuyihelangmanzhuyidejingguanyancijiangchuantong、gulaoyuyingxiong、shiyixiangjiehe,shizhishangzheshechutaqiwangguizuchuantongyunongminchuantonghuburonghedelixiang。

zongzhi,xingezai《alundao》zhongshituchengxianchuyibuwanzhengdedaoyuminzuzhi,yuanshidefengjing、yuyan、fengsu、xinyangdengzaitabixiahuanhuachenghuodebowuguan,《alundao》deyabo88dengluzhuceyibuzaishijiandandewulikongjianmiaoshu,ershishiyisuixiangxiadeguankanjiluyuwenhuachensi。zaianshiyukeneng、zhenshiyuxiangxiang、xianshiyulangmanzhijian,xingewanchengduiminzu、shenfen、wenhuadexiliesikao,tongshixiyinzherenmenjixuquxiangxiang、jiangoualundaodeguoqu、xianzaijiweilai。

(作者单位:中国人民大学yabo88登录院)