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科幻之外,阅读《弗兰肯斯坦》的几种方式
来源:澎湃新闻 | 德汀轩  2020年09月07日16:19
关键词:

1816nianxiatian,mali·xuelaihepoxi·xuelaifufuzairuishijuzhu。zairineiwahupan,tamenjieshilelinjubailunjueshi,bingjianlileyouyi。baitian,yixingrenfanzhouhushang,yewanhuoshitianqibujiaderizi,tamenzetantianshuodi。1816niandexiatianshouyicihuoshanbaofachanshengdehuoshanhuiyingxiang,duoshushihoutianqibujia,yushitanhuadejihuizengduole。tamenhuodeleyibenfanyichengfayudedeguoguigushiji,huoxushishouzheixiegushideqifa,bailuntiyitamenmeigerenxieyigeguigushi。genjumali·xuelaizai1831nianchubandeshuzhongsuoxiedejieshao,tanuligousiyigenengqiezhongrenxingzhongshenmidekongjudeguigushi,queyouyizhenshenmedouxiangbuchu。tongshi,tatinglexuduobailunhexuelaidezhangtan,tamendetanhuaneirongbaokuoshengmingdeyuanli,yijizheizhongyuanlinengfoubeijieshi、renshifounengchuangzaochushengming。yemujianglin,tameiyourushui,xiangxianglixiangtazhanxianleyifushengdongdetujing:xuexixiedushenmingdeyishudexueshengyiliancangbai,guizaitazuzhuangchudedongxipangbian,neidongxishoujiaoshenzhanditangzhe,jingguomouzhongliliangqiangdadejiqidezuoyong,zhanxianchuleshengmingdejixiang,buzirandidongledong。mali·xuelairenweizheiqingjingyidingshijiweikongbude,yinweirenherenleishitumofangzaowuzhudejudongdoushibihuidailaikepadehouguo。yincixueshengyidinghuibeizijidechenggonghehuai,huaizhezheibuwanmeidezaowujiangsiqudeqidaiershuiqu,dandangtaxinglai,neikepadedongxijiuzhanzaitachuangbian,yonghuangsede、shuiwangwangde、chongmancaijideyanjingkanzheta。

youci,danshenglebeibushaoxuezherenweishikehuanxiaoshuobizude《fulankensitan》。shuzhong,nianqingdefulankensitanzuixinhuaxue,tongguoyanjiusiwanghuodeleguanyushengmingdeaomi,liyongsirendeshihaizaochuleyigehuode、yourendelixingheganqingdeshengwu(meiyoumingzi,shichangbeifulankensitanchengwei“guaiwu”、“emo”,benwenzhongjiangqichengwei“guaiwu”)。youyuzhangxiangchouloukongbu,zheigeshengwuweirenleishehuisuoburong,chuyuyuanhenhebaofuxin,zhizaoleyixiliemousha,lingfulankensitantongkuyujue。

yabo88登录 《fulankensitan》xianranyuduikexueyanjiudexiangxiangyijikejilunliyouguan,danzaibijiaoxianeryijiandekehuanyuansuzhiwai,zheibuxiaoshuodexuduowenbenxijienaizhiqixushufangshidouyounairenxunweizhichu,yinernengzhichengduozhongmoshidechanshi,juyoujidadechanshikongjian。zheipianwenzhangdemudeshijieshaojizhongjiedu《fulankensitan》defangshi,xiwangduiaihaoyabo88dengludeduzheyousuoqifa。

yabo88登录 《fulankensitan》(xiudingban),shanghaiyiwenchubanshe2020nian9yueban

叙述的可靠性

dui《fulankensitan》hexinyizhidetanqiu,raobukaiduizhurengongzaowuxingweidepingjia。buguo,congxiaoshuozhongquehennankanchuzuozheduifulankensitanyourenheqingxidepingjia。daodecengmianshang,fulankensitandexingxiangyoubushaomohudedifang,zheihendachengdushangshiyinweixiaoshuodexushujiegoushicengcengqiantaode:

18shijidemouyinian,huaichuaikexuelixiangdeluobote·woerdunguleyisouchuan,tashanglequbeijikaochadehangcheng。xiaoshuoyoutaxiejijiemeimagelitedexinzucheng,yiwoerdundekouwenmiaoshutazaibeibingyangshangxianhouyujianle“guaiwu”hefulankensitan,bingjiangchuyujuejingdehouzhedajiushangchuan。fulankensitanduiwoerdunjiangshulezijidegushi,yushitadexushusuijibeiqiantaojinwoerdundexinzhong。fulankensitandexushuyoubaokuo“guaiwu”duitashuoguodegushi,yincixiaoshuozhongyouyibufenshiyoufulankensitanzhuanshude“guaiwu”dezishu。meiyounayizhongxushudeshengyinyuzuozhedeshengyinzhonghe,“guaiwu”dezishuyufulankensitandexushuzhijiancunzaizhangli,zheizhongzhanglihuiyinfaduzheduifulankensitandexushudezhiyihefansi,youcidakailejudadechanshikongjian。

fulankensitandui“guaiwu”dezhizerangduzhezhuyidaotazijidaodeshangdemohu。youshitaweizijichuangzaochuleyige“ren”erzihao,dangengduodeshihoutabingbubazijidezaowudangrenkandai,shenzhixiangxin“guaiwu”debenxingjiushixieede。tadezhizijinianyoudedidizaodaomousha,zaifanhuirineiwatuzhongdeyicibaofengyulijiandaolezijichuangzaode“guaiwu”。“youmeiyoukenengshitashasilewodedidi?zheixiangfayidanzaiwonaohaizhongchuxian,wojiulikequexinshishijiushiruci……meiyourenheyourenxingdeshengwurenxincuihuineigekeaidehaizi!tajiushixiongshou!”cishide“guaiwu”shangweifanxiafulankensitanyizhidezuixing,fulankensitanjitadingzuideweiyiyijujiushitalingrenkongjudezhangxiang:yinweiyoufeirendechoulou,suoyishibiyoufeirendexieeneixin。suiranhoulaidegushijieshile“guaiwu”queshishixiongshou,dan“guaiwu”shijishangzhengshibeizheizhongbukekaode、xiangdangrandeluojisuohai,caiyibubuzouxiangchouhenhecanren。

yabo88登录 zaifulankensitandexushili,ganggangzaochu“guaiwu”deshihou,tabei“guaiwu”dechoulouhedebuqing,duichuangzaoshengmingdeshiyedeyiqiangrexueyixiazibianchengledui“guaiwu”dekongjuhexiane。yushitalikaishiyanshi,shenzhitaochulefangzi,youcitaobilezijizuoweichuangzaozhe(shenzhishimouzhongyiyishangdefumu)dezeren,yejiangtigebirengengqiangde“guaiwu”shifangchulai,shiqichuyuwurenguanshudezhuangtaixia。er“guaiwu”zejiangshuleyigeshifenzhidetongqingdegushi。genju“guaiwu”dexushi,tagangganglaidaorenshishitounaokongkong,meiyoushifeishanedegainian。taduozaiyijianxiaomuwupangbiandepengzili,tongguoguanchahetoutingxiaomuwulineiyijiarendeyanxing(yijipangtingneiyijiadeerziweitadealaboqizijiangshoudekecheng),xuehuileshuohua,lejielerenleishehuideyunxing。suiranmingzhizijibeirenrenweishiguaiwu,tahaishixiwangbeirenleisuojiena。tashituyuneiyijiarenjianliyouyi,zhidaoneiyijiadelaofuqinshigemangren,kanbujianzijideyangmao,yushichenqitarendouchumenshishituyulaofuqinpantan,bucengxiangnianqingrenmenjinlewu,nianqingnvrenmenyoudehundaoyoudetaozou,erzichongleguolaijiangtacongfuqinshenbianlakai,bingyonggunzidaletayidun。zheizhongzaoyushidetafennu,quebucengshitajuewang——tahuidaomuwu,zhengquranglaofuqinzhanzaitaneiyibian。danerziquerenweifuqinchuyujidadeweixianzhong,jujiabanzoule。qianqianhouhou“guaiwu”yudaoguoxuduocilaizirenleidebugongzhengdaiyu,genbenyuanyindoushitadezhangxiang。tayudaodesuoyouren(baokuofulankensitannianyouchunzhendedidi)douyinweitadechoulouermorentashixieeerweixiande,youcitazhujianduizijidechujinggandaolejuewang,jiduyuchouhenshidetafanxialekepadezuixing。

yabo88登录 “guaiwu”dexushizhanxianlegushidelingyimian,jiyigezhangxiangchouloudeshengwushiruhechengweizhenzhengeguanmanyingdeguaiwude。fulankensitanjinjinchuangzaoleyigeyongrenleidebiaozhunlaikanshifenchouloudeshengwu,shitaheqitarenduizheigeshengwudeweijuhepaichishitachengweileguaiwu。zaizheiyidianshang,zifuyingcaidefulankensitanyu“guaiwu”yudaodeqitarenmeishenmebutong——tamengongtongshahaileneigeyixinxiangshanerqinrende“guaiwu”。ruguofulankensitanyongduidairendebiaozhunduidaitayirenweimobanzaochulaideshengwu,danfuchuangzaozhedezeren,jiaoyupeiyangqiliangshandeyimian,huozhezhishaozai“guaiwu”danshengshibuyinhaipaertaozou,gushidejiejukenengfeichangbutong。

xuezhemenyezhuyidaofulankensitanzhizaode“guaiwu”deheisetoufahuangsepifu,jiangqiyuyazhourenhuozhemenggurenlianxiqilai。qiebulunmali·xuelaiyabo88dengluzhuceshishifouzhendeyouyijiang“guaiwu”kehuaweiouzhourenzhiwaidezhongzu,“guaiwu”degushibenshenhuoxunengweizhongzuhexingbiecengmiande“tazhe”xingxiangdeshengchengtigongyizhongjieshi:“tazhe”dexuduozaogaotezhibushiyushengjulaide,ershijinglisuofuyuheqianghuade。bugongzhengdaiyudeqiyin,yuqichengshouzhedebenzhishuxingmeiyoubiranlianxi,quehuidailaichengshouzhedeyuanhen、baofudengzhongzhongzaogaodebiaoxian,youciyinfaduichengshouzhedepianjian,pianjianyoushidebugongzhengdedaiyuchengweichangtai,xingchengyigeexingxunhuan。“guaiwu”suozaoyudebugongzhengduidaiheyouciyinfadehenyiyuxiongcan,yinzhenglepoxi·xuelaicongshuzhongtilianchudedaodezhunze:“yizaogaodefangshiduidaiyigeren,tahuibiandexiee。huibaoganqingyiqingmie;——rangyigeshengwubeixuanweitaneiyileizhongbeijujuedeneiyige,bulunchuyushenmeyuanyin——jiangyigeyoushehuixingdezhutiyushehuigelikailai,nijiuqiangjiajitalenanyidiyudeyiwu——eduyuzisi。”

对《弗兰肯斯坦》的女性主义解读

yabo88登录 sangdela·jierboteyusushan·gubazainvxingzhuyipipingdemingzuo《geloushangdefengnvren》zhong,yimierdunde《shileyuan》weicanzhaoxi,tansuolefulankensitanhe“guaiwu”zheilianggezhuyaorenwuyuxiawadeguanlian。tamenba《fulankensitan》shiwei《shileyuan》zhongyannvqingjiedelingyibanben,xiaoshuozhongshuleguanyuduoluoyudiyudegushi。

suiranxiawameiyouzaixiaoshuozhongchuxian,danwenbenzhongquenengzhaodaofulankensitanhe“guaiwu”yutadexiangsizhichu。jierbotehegubarenwei,zuinengdingyifulankensitandexingweishita“shengyu”leyigeguaiwu:tafeijinxinsihuoquguanyurenleishengmingdezhishi(leisiyuxiawachilejinguodedaolezuiedezhishi),liqunsuoju,zhizaochuleyigepangrandawu(zheiyeshirenxiangqi《shileyuan》zhongshengxiale“zuie”desadan),yeyoucifaxiantabushiyadangershixiawa。tamenrenwei,“xiawadefaxianbushitabixuduoluo,ershi,yinweibeichuangzaochengnvxing,tabenshenjiushiduoluode,zuoweinvxingyuchuyuduoluozhuangtaibenzhishangshitongyide”,erfulankensitanduizishenzuiedeyishiyuxiawaxiangjin。tazhizaochu“guaiwu”houchongmanjiaolvyuzuiegandeyuanyin,zaiyutafaxianlezijijiushiduoluodexiawa,shitazijijiangzuieyusiwangshifangdaorenjian。tamenyezhichu,“guaiwu”dexushuyerangrenxiangqixiawa:dangyadangyushenmingduihuashi,tawuzhugudandidaizaiyipang;xiawasuodaibiaodenvxinghe“guaiwu”yiyang,shenglaibucunhuoyulishizhong,ruoyaoweigetishengmingxunzhaolishi,zhinengxunzhaodao《shileyuan》zhongdeqiyuanshenhua。zheigeshenhuazejiaohuitamen:tamenshiduoluode、youzuide,zhengru“guaiwu”suoshoudaodejiaoyu:tazairenleishehuizhongshiyigeguaiwu。

bizherenweijierbotehegubadejieduxinyingeryouchuangjian,danbizhehaixiwangzhichufulankensitanyuxiawadequbie:tazhangwozhexushuzijidelishihemingyundehuayuquan,haiyouzheziwochonggaodeqingxiang。jierbotehegubaguanchadaodetayuxiawadexiangsixingshifoubaochidaolexiaoshuodejieweichu?huoxumeiyou。xiaoshuozuihouyiduan,tazaibeijizhuizhu“guaiwu”zhidaosizailewoerdundechuanshang,ruguogenjuzheiyiduanzhongfulankensitandexushulaikan,tazaidui“guaiwu”dechouhenzhongzhubuxiaojielezijidezuie,jiangcuihui“guaiwu”shiweizijidemingyun,weiziwoxingxiangzhuruzhengyigan,yicilaizhichengtazouwanrenshengzhongzuihouyiduankuangredelvcheng。

yabo88登录 fulankensitanduociyi“chaoshengzhilv”(pilgrimage)laixingrongzijishasi“guaiwu”delvtu,bingyoucihuodeleyizhongshiminggan。yishasi“guaiwu”、weiqinrenfuchouweishiming,tashenzhiweizheiduanlvchengfuyuleyingxiongzhuyidesecai,pangfozijishishishizhongzhudingyaojinglimonan、wanchengshimingdeyingxiongyiban:“wodeyongqihejianrenbeizheixieqingmiedehuayujifachulai;woxiadingjuexinbunengshibai;ranhou,wozhaohuanshangtianlaizhichiwo,yiweijiantuidereqingjiezhekuayuleguangkuodehuangmo……”xiaoshuodezuihou,fulankensitanzhidaozijishiribuduole,siqiantahuigulezijiyishengzhongdesuozuosuowei,burenweizijiyoukeguaizuidedifang:genjutadexushu,tazaiyizhen“reqingdefengkuang”zhongchuangzaochuleyigeyoulixingdeshengwu,zhidaozijiduizheigeshengwudexingfufuyouzeren,querenweizijidui“wozijidezhongzu”——renlei——dezerengengweizhongda,yincijujuele“guaiwu”rangtachuangzaoyigenvxingbanlvdeyaoqiu。chongmanchouhende“guaiwu”duitadeqinyoufanxiayixiliezuixing,yushitazijuedanfuqihuimie“guaiwu”deshiming。zongguantadui“guaiwu”detaidu,wulunshi“guaiwu”desheng、si,haishiqinggan,tadouduiciquefazunzhong。

yabo88登录 tabujinjindui“guaiwu”deshengmingqueshaozunzhong,duirendeshengmingyeshiruci。tasiqianhaifashengleyiduanchaqu:woerdundechuansizhoubeifubingbaowei,chuyuxianjing,chuanyuanmenhaipawoerdunzaituoxianhouxuanzejixuhangxing,jiangtamendairuxindeweixianzhong,xiangwoerduntichuyaoqiu,yidanchuantuoxian,jiubixufanhang。fulankensitanduichuanyuanmenfabiaoleyipianyancipoweixiongbiandeyanshuo,dayishi:yinweizheiduanhangchengbeiweixianhesiwangsuohuanrao,suoyishiguangrongde,ruguonengjianchixialaizenenghuode“zaofurenlei”deshengming;renxinyidanjiandingbukezhuanyi,bingjiudikangbuzhurenxin;zongzhijuebunengbeifuzhechengweinuofudemamingfanhang。tashirensuonenghuodedeshengmingweizuidadejiazhi,gudongzhechuanyuanhetayiyangchenmianyuhuanmengzhong——“renyidanneixinjiandingjiuyouwuxiannengli”dejiashe,wushilekeguandetiaojian,zhishihuanmengyichang。jiejushifulankensitansizaichuanshang,woerdunfucongchuanyuandeyaoqiu,fanhangle。fulankensitanzuidadezuie,huoxubushichuangzaole“guaiwu”,ershichenjinzaiyizhongduiziwodechongbaiheyoucierlaidekuangrezhong,congerhushileshengmingbenshendejiazhi。taduichuangzaoshengmingdekuangre,yeshiweilequezhengtaweizijiyushede“chonggao”mingyun。fulankensitanzuizhongchengweile“guaiwu”denuli,zhuizhu“guaiwu”zhidaosiqu,jishiduitadezifuheziwozhongxindejuedafengci。

参考文献

Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, edited by J. Paul Hunter, W. W. Norton, 2012.(本文引用的评论文章也来源于此书所收集的关于《弗兰肯斯坦》的yabo88登录批评。)